Concepts of Sociology Essay

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Concepts of Sociology Agents of socialization - People, groups, and experiences that influence our behavior and self-image. Authoritarianism - A political system that does not allow citizens to participate in government. Belief - A specific idea that people feel to be true. Body language - The ways in which we use our bodies consciously and unconsciously to communicate. Capitalism - The economic system in which the means of production are owned privately and individuals are free to keep the profits they make. Capitalist class - In industrialized societies, the rich and powerful and the owners of the means of production. It is also called the elite. Counterculture - A way of living that opposes the dominant culture. Crime - The violation of a written law. Cultural diffusion - The process whereby an aspect of culture spreads throughout a culture or from one culture to another. Cultural relativism - The attitude that in order to understand the traits of another culture, one must view them within the context of that culture. Culture - Everything made, learned, and shared by the members of a society. Culture lag - The tendency for changes in material culture to occur at a more rapid rate than changes in nonmaterial culture. Culture shock - The surprise, disorientation, and fear people can experience upon encountering a different culture. Deviance - The violation of a norm. Dominant culture - The culture held by the majority and/or by the most powerful group in a society. Ethnocentrism - The tendency to judge another culture by the standards of one’s own culture. Exogamy - Marriage between members of different categories, classes, or groups. Extended family - Several generations or branches of a family. Family - The institution responsible for the rearing of children. Gender -

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