Computer Ethics And Information Ethics Essay

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Computer ethics is a branch of practical philosophy which deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. For understanding the subject of computer ethics the history of its development should be observed: In the 1940’s Norbert Wiener, a professor of mathematics and engineering at MIT, created “Cybernetics”, new branch of applied science which identified some social and ethical implications of electronic computers. According to Cybernetics “the structure of the machine or of the organism is an index of the performance that may be expected from it”. Wiener believed that for human beings to flourish they must be free to engage in creative and flexible actions and thereby maximize their full potential as intelligent, decision-making beings in charge of their own lives. He thought that this was the purpose of human life. Because of this believes he stated his “great principles of justice” (“The Principle of Freedom”, “The Principle of Equality” and “The Principle of Benevolence”). In 1976 Walter Maner proposed the creation of a new field of ethics, which should study ethical problems “aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology”. He organized a series of workshops and courses in computer ethics. In 1985 Deborah Johnson published “Computer Ethics” – the first major textbook in the field. In the same year James Moore wrote his paper “What is Computer Ethics?”. In it he defines the notions of “logical malleability”, “policy vacuums”, “conceptual muddles”. In the 1990’s Moore added some new ideas including the notions about “core human values” and created the theory of “just consequentialism“. With their help he provides the following problem solving method: - Identify a policy vacuum generated by computing technology. - Eliminate any conceptual muddles. - Use the core values and the ethical

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