Doing Gender (West and Zimmerman) * The article introduced their notion of gender not as a trait, a social role or a societal representation, but rather as an accomplishment- the product of daily social practices and behaviors which codify and manifest femininity of masculinity. This product is the result of social structures and it in itself serves to reinforce them. * The "doing" of gender legitimizes social structures and therefore establishes the male/female opposition as natural. * West and Zimmerman argue that gender is something which is performed, something which is "done” * Gender is established by mean of interaction and is displayed through it, and while appearing as "natural" it is in fact something which is created by an organized social performance. * Gender is also a
Much of Meads report, based on the three communities was based on second hand information which may have been inaccurate. Mead was being criticised for being ethnocentric as she was using Western ideas of what it means to be masculine/feminine and suggesting that this is the norm and the Samoan societies deviated from this. Research showing cultural differences in special
But in film we see the opposite situation, which leads us to another binary opposition – sex/gender. Sex determined biologically, while gender is a psychological concept which refers to culturally acquired sexual identity. "When the constructed status of gender is theorized as radically independent of sex, gender itself becomes a free-floating artifice, with the consequence that man and masculine might just as easily signify a female body as a male one, and woman and feminine a male body as easily as a female one." (Butler, 1990, p.6) We can look to two different identities – Dil and Jude. The first time we see Dil in the film, her make-up, costume and behaviors conform to the female stereotypes.
- to avoid preconceptions whereas men can make superficial decisions ranging incomparably narrow. In addition, Tannen suggests an example where women can be simply judged based on their titles - “Ms.” and “Mrs.” Tannen adds on by referring to Ralph Fasold’s research that it is actually the male that is marked. She writes, “Fasold points out that girls are born with fully female bodies, while boys are born with modified female bodies.” Tannen admits that she herself who is writing about the inequality between genders could be seen as a feminist, yet doubted that anyone would put that label on Fasold. Tannen concludes that she is unhappy about women not having the freedom to be unmarked as men had. Some days she just wants to get dressed and go about her business.
Do you agree that Shakespeare presents Beatrice and Katherina as “offending against society’s expectations about women”? The idea that both Beatrice and Katherina offend against society’s expectations of women in the plays Much Ado About Nothing and The Taming of the Shrew is open to personal interpretation. We must take into account which society it is we are suggesting they are offending against, if we are judging it on Shakespearean society’s expectations we could, in theory, agree with the statement, due to the fact that at that time, women were largely expected to be submissive, quiet and respectful to the superior sex, males. However, it would not be correct to say that Beatrice and Katherina offend against modern day expectations of women. Further to this, it would also depend on at which point in the play we are making our judgement.
In this paper, I will argue for Butler’s view on how certain gender performance is restricted in these numerous fields, and how Ms. Butler would object to these various situations. In the opening statement of Gender Trouble, Butler states, “feminist theory has assumed that there is some existing identity, understood through the category of women, who initiates feminist interests and goals.” (CITE GENDER TROUBLE PAGE 1 HERE) By this quote, she explains that feminist theory created the problem that it represents, while at the same time preventing its own progression. She supports this claim with her primary example of gender restriction in the field of representation in politics. Although this problem has no surefire resolution, it is suggested that in order for women to have true political visibility, the development of an identity that truly represents one as an individual is key. Butler suggests the following theory as a solution to these multifaceted complications.
Then in reservations to CEDAW based on Reitman, cultural relativism work towards the global of elimination of gender discrimination. Comes to the end of this section Reitman provide the explanation about how relativism could be an obstacle to the protection of women’s human rights. One pragmatic things in reservations to CEDAW, actually it’s affect women from non-reserving states in that the integrity of the Convention is inferior to that of instruments in relation to which no or fewer reservations are entered (Clark 1991). Author suggested that cultural relativism has inflicted the serious obstacle for the enforcement of women's
‘Making a Nation out of Words’ Words may seem nondescript but they actually shape the thinking of generations, cultures and in turn nations. Reiteration of such rhetoric phrases which are non-committal for its users, however; they have immense negative connotations for the people they are intended for. Pakistan being a male dominated society regards females as subordinate and an inferior . This gender bias reflects in our use of language. “Hum ne choorian toh nahi pehni Hui” (We are not wearing bangles) is one such commonly used phrase which completely represents the idea of femininity being regarded as an abuse in the society particularly in the political community.
The relevant dichotomy of society from the culture of “body mod” will be discussed as well as body modifications as they are linked to the image of gender. Reasons will be laid out for what the individual involved in body modification is attempting to transgress as well as the morality of it all. By integrating specific quotes from literature used in previous class discussion, the theology of extreme or “hard” body modification will be analyzed. While body modifications vary slightly between male and female bodies due to the natural addition or removal of body parts, extreme body modifications are not limited to a specific gender image. This creates a sense of otherness, morality and a dichotomy not linked to language or gender, but to transgressing the images formed by society.
Today gay and lesbian criticism is so much a part of gender criticism that it be equivalent to “sexualities criticism”. Some would argue that feminist criticism is the definition of gender criticism. 3. Feminist, Simone de Beauvoir declared in 1949 that “one is not born a woman, she becomes one”. Simone was referring to how females of the female sex assume the feminine gender-gender meaning the restrictive, socially prescribed attitudes and behaviors that we associate with femininity.