The March Revolution of 1917 led to the abdication of Nicholas and the installment of a provisional government. The leader of this new government was Alexander Kerensky, who was eventually forced from power and later fled to America. The armies that were at war were taken command by Czar Nicholas in the fall of 1915, leaving a power vacuum in the capitol city of St. Petersburg. Suddenly in March of 1917 the collapse of the government came. Mass demonstrations were spawned by food riots, strikes and war protests.
Lenin was responsible for the Bolsheviks growing hold on power in the years 1917-24. He was responsible for changing strategy with the April thesis and the overthrow of the provisional government. This gained him popularity and support from the Russian populous. To strengthen power he dissolved the constituent assembly in 1918. His harsh policy of war communism and the use of the checka in the years of the civil war, removed opposition to his power.
How did the Bolsheviks take control between 1917 and 1918 In 1917, after the revolution, Nicholas II was abdicated and Tsarism ended. He got Russia involved in the war and while he was at the front ordering troops, people in Petrograd were protesting about lack of food. This, and the war brought the end of a state controlled by a Tsar. A Provisional government was formed of docters, bankers and other people with important jobs. The Petrograd soviet recognized the authority of the Provisional Government because they carried out eight measures.
Valuable weapons were lost and the army was running short of ammunition and medical supplies. The Russian army started deserting their posts. The situation in Russia got worse and the Russian people rebelled in 1917 and the Tsar was overthrown. The overtaking Government surrendered to the Germans after two days of being in power. The Germans transferred all of the soldiers in the Eastern Front over to the Western front to fight the British and the French.
Failures of the government and the sub-sequential influence of Rasputin, scandals associated with the Tsarina, criticisms of the Tsar’s leadership and the failure to fulfil the October Manifesto were contributory factors that played a key role in the outbreak of the two revolutions. The First World War was a major factor that caused the outbreak of the 1917 February and October revolutions. The initial excitement Russian society actively exhibited towards the outbreak of war was an outcome the Tsar highly anticipated. Tsar Nicholas II intended to appease and steer his people away from revolutionary ideas and “revolution was not even a distant possibility” (Bruce Lockhart, British Vice-Council in Moscow 1914), Although the Tsar’s initial plan worked accordingly it miscarried as anticipated and Russian society lost enthusiasm for the war began to dwindle. Russians became cautious of the difficulties and turmoil’s in a country at war; rampant problems they faced were pushed aside and overshadowed by the efforts in war.
In February 1917 the Tsar had been forced to give up his throne. Explain why this first revolution occurred. Revolution occurred because of the impact World War One had on the defeat of the Russian military; food shortages and transport dislocation in Russia. There was a shortage of weapons and soldiers were forced to fight without weapons as weapons and ammunition had become rationed. The military leadership was terrible and the Tsar took it upon himself to have the role of personal command in 1915 (as told to him by Rasputin).
In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, originally a part of the Russian Social Democratic Party seized power from the Russian Empire through a series of revolutions that ended the third largest empire in the world (http://www.thecorner.org/hist/russia/revo1917.htm). After the civil war that followed the Soviet Union was formed and many writers, intellectuals and artists were executed, sent to labour camps or exiled as the Communist Party tightened its hold on anti-Communist beliefs (Murrell, 1998, p. 35 and 36 and http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-12465.html). In this essay I examine the causes of the Russian Revolution; how the revolution took place; and how the Russian Revolution of 1917 has impacted on the culture of Russia and the world. There were many causes of the Russian Revolution in 1917 but the main causes were the lack of food and morale, which was complemented by a state of political unrest. According to Murrell (1998) “Food shortages, the tsar’s weak leadership, and Russia’s disastrous performance in World War I heightened unrest”.
2 As I will prove in the next paragraphs, there was enough substantial tension between the communist and capitalist worlds before 1945 for us to say that the Cold War indeed started in 1917. I see the allied intervention in the Russian Revolution of 1917 as the real start of the Cold War because it was here when hostilities from the capitalist world to the communist world initiated. When the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917, the Soviet government withdrew from the First World War, nationalized private property and land, and repudiated billions in foreign debts contracted by the tsars.3 This produced discontent in the West. As a response, many American leaders, like Secretary of State Robert Lansing and U.S. Ambassador David Francis, favored an open and direct action against the Soviet regime to prevent the spread of, to use U.S. President
In January 1905, they were forced to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in North China, and over the following months, the Japanese defeated the Russians in Manchuria with the greatest military humiliation took place at the Battle of Tsushima on 27th May 1905. In Russia, the defeats helped to create unrest against the government and undermine the support for Tsar Nicholas, who had supported the conflict. Therefore, the popular resentment caused by the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 humiliating Russia, contributed towards the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. A few long-term factors that contributed towards the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution were the social and economic problems. Before 1905, 80% of the Russian population were peasants with the majority living in poverty.