Comparison of Person Centred Theory to Erkison and Ta

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Erik Erikson argued that Freud’s psychodynamic approach to counselling ignored the social influences in life. His psychosocial stages cover a lifetime, and functions by the epigenetic principle – that development is predetermined, with personalities unfolding in eight, time-specific stages. Each stage he describes a turning point (or crises), which needs to be resolved – at an optimal time - for the individual to move forward. If tasks are not resolved at each stage, it is possible for an individual become stuck, unable to properly move forward through each subsequent stage. Trust vs Mistrust (0-1yr): the infant develops a sense of trust in the world if his or her needs are met [Existential Question: Can I Trust the World?] Autonomy vs Doubt (1-3yrs): the toddler develops a sense of independence through bladder and bowel control [Existential Question: Is It OK to Be Me?] Initiative vs Guilt (3-6yrs): the child learns to initiate actions, especially during play, indicating a move to cognitive, not just physical independence [Existential Question: Is it OK for Me to Do, Move, and Act?] Industry vs Inferiority (6-12yrs): the child competes against his or her peers in producing acceptable work in school [Existential Question: Can I Make it in the World of People and Things?] Identity vs Role-confusion (adolescence, 12-19yrs): the teenager develops a sense of identity, strives for more self-understanding and establishes goals for the future [Existential Question: Who Am I and What Can I Be?] Intimacy vs Isolation (young adulthood, 20-30yrs): a feeling of belonging either with a close group of friends or through marriage [Existential Question: Can I Love?] Generativity vs Stagnation (middle adulthood, 30-50yrs): generativity is Erikson's term for a concern for future generations; in this stage adults assist their growing children or the community to
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