Comparison of Nursing Theories

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Kozier and Erb (2007) defined nursing theory as providing direction and guidance in structuring profession nursing practice, education, and research while providing differentiation from other disciplines and serving as a template for the assessment, intervention, and evaluation of nursing care [ (Kozier, Erb, Snyder, & Berman, 2007) ]. The spectrum of nursing theory encompasses four metaparadigms consisting of the patient, environment, health, and nursing, with the focus of nursing centering on the patient [ (Kozier, Erb, Snyder, & Berman, 2007) ]. Nursing theory can be divided into a series of specific philosophy, each addressing a different aspect of nursing care with a common end result – enhanced patient care. The theories involve include – needs theory (centered around assisting the individual achieve his/her maximum functional potential), interaction theory (involve the relationship between the nurse and the patient), outcome theory (the nurse is a change force who guides the patient to adapt to illness), and caring/becoming theory (the patient and the nurse are brought together due to the fundamental act of caring) [ (Meleis, 2012) ]. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast a nursing theorist from each of the aforementioned nursing categories. The following theorists were chosen – Virginia Henderson (needs theorist), Ernestine Wiedenbach (interaction theorist), Martha Rogers (outcome theorist), and caring/becoming theorist (Jean Watson). The education background, definition of nursing, philosophy of nursing, and goal/purpose of nursing will be explored. Comparison of Nursing Theorists Virginia Henderson (Needs Theorist) * Education: Diploma in Nursing Army School of Nursing (1921); BSN from Teachers College, Columbia University (1932); M.A. Teachers College, Columbia University (1934) * Definition of Nursing: Role of

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