Wallace also strongly points out that we need to be “a little less arrogant” and not believe solely in our preconceived notions about things, because we usually tend to be wrong. We must be aware of our surroundings and learn how to control how and what we want to think. Wallace says that we get to decide what has meaning and what does not, and we must do this with awareness, an open mind, and give ourselves choices of how to view situations. Bertrand Russell tells readers in “The Problems of Philosophy” that unlike typical sciences where one discovers correct answers, we are constantly searching for the value of philosophy. Russell says that philosophy does not find right answers, but rather encourages thinking.
The phrase “Sapere aude” (Kant 1) means dare to be wise or dare to know, which is the motto of the Enlightenment. Kant encourages people to use their own reason to acquire knowledge. The use of reason should be independent and public. If it were not independent, which means under the conduct of others, people would appear immature. He answers the question “what is enlightenment” at the beginning of the essay: “enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage.
It does not settle the west. It does not educate.” Thoreau also uses powerful imagery in order to persuade his readers towards his ideals. He believed that one must be conscious of the laws they choose to obey and disobey, whether or not they are in the minority. The people should not be tricked into believing that neither the government nor the majority will know what is right and what is wrong. Instead, Thoreau remarks that it is up to every man to decide for himself what is right based on his moral standards and ethics.
Consequential is a type of ethical theory; it’s built upon moral views of acts, rules, etc. purely due to the consideration of their consequences, where the norm of consideration is worked as the norm of non-moral goodness. Happiness is a part of acquiring what could be an unsatisfying truth that we do not have a solid handle of our control or impact in our world; giving into the greatest good, as well as, ignoring what can bring negativity. It is important to make the best out of life as possible that represent positive and negative, and take the rest as life wants to give it. The theory of “good” and bad is really not a matter of concern; we have our own particular views, so what can be bad may actually be good.
He contended that negative, antisocial emotions are the result of frustrated basic impulses. Once free of their defensive behavior, their reactions are positive and progressive. Rogers believed that, given the opportunity, people would make wise decisions and move toward psychological adjustment. This experiential psychological approach is the core of humanistic psychology. Its starting point is not assumptions about what methods to employ but about the nature of the lived reality of experience.
However to act morally then we must be capable of exercising freedom or the autonomy of the will .The opposite of this is what Kant did not believe in and this is heteronomy and that is something is right because its satisfies some desire, emotion, goal or obligation. After excising our freedom and good will then duty is left to follow, as duty is what makes the good will good. It is important that duty can be done for its own sake , our motives need to be pure. To act morally is to do one's duty, and one's duty is to obey the moral law. Kant
What is Person-Centred Therapy? The theory behind this was influenced by the work Carl Rogers did with emotionally troubled people, where he believed that we have a remarkable capacity for self-healing and personal growth, which then leads to self-actualisation. Unlike Freud who emphasised the importance of psychological continuity, meaning that our past is a key determinant of the present, Rogers felt the key was with the person’s current perception and how we live in the ‘here and now’. Rogers also noticed most centrally to his theory that people when explaining their situation would refer to themselves directly, showing their understanding of ‘self’ or ‘self-concept’. This is crucial as self-concept is a central component of our overall experience and influences our perception of the world and perception of self within it.
First of all, we must make a differentiation between Ethical egoism and Physiological Egoism. In the firs one talks about that people ought to act in a self-interesting way, and the second one is the fact tat people act in a self-interesting way. Even though sometimes we fell that we should do things for others, the theory of ethical egoism is accepted because it is not promoting personal interests over others interests. There are some arguments that help support this idea. One of the most important arguments is the Argument that altruism is self-defeating.
How does your position affect your approach to morality- for example, should a moral system be strict, clear, and absolutistic, or permissive, flexible, and relativistic? There have been numerous discussions by philosophers and also scientists to establish whether man is essentially good, bad or both. Others have argued that man’s mind is initially a blank slate and from that point on his character/nature is defined by his actions. But the truth of the matter is that man is naturally good. His nature dictates for him to achieve what is good for him and others around him consequently his happiness.
Stanley Milgram Obedience is an essential instinct. Stanley Milgram’s essay, “The Perils of Obedience,” shows his us that humans will basically do anything they are told to and he tries to figure out why this is. Milgram proposes that people feel responsible for carrying out the wishes of an authority figure, but they do not feel responsible for the actual actions they are performing. He decides that the increasing division of labor in society encourages people to focus on a smaller task and to avoid responsibility for anything that they do not directly control. Conservative philosophers debate that the very basics of society are endangered by rebellion, though humanists strain the importance of a singular conscience.