Comparison and Contrast: Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
and Rosemarie Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming
Nursing theory, according to Florence Nightingale, helps to describe and explain what nursing is and what it is not. Nursing theory is important because it assists the profession of nursing to develop and understand nursing practice (Parker, 2006). Two nursing theorists, Jean Watson and Rosemarie Parse, share some common themes and perspectives as well as some significant differences in their theories. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these two theories in order to understand these similarities and differences as well as to examine the similarities of other nursing theories to Watson and Parse’s theories.
Brief Overview of Jean Watson’s Theory
Watson’s theory focuses on the act of helping people to gain more self-knowledge, self-control, and readiness for self-healing regardless of the external health condition the individual is experiencing.
The major elements of Watson’s theory of Human Caring are the carative factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion/caring moment. The carative factors served as a guide for the nurse to honor the human dimensions of nursing’s work, and the subjective experience of the patients nursing serves. As Watson continued to evolve her theory, she introduced the concept of clinical caritas/caritas processes. Caritas originates from the Greek vocabulary meaning to cherish and give special, loving attention. The clinical caritas offer a greater spiritual dimension to the carative processes (Parker, 2006).
The transpersonal caring relationship occurs when the nurse goes beyond her objective assessment and shows more concern toward the subjective and deeper meaning of the patients towards their own health care situation. Transpersonal means going beyond the ego-self and allowing one’s self to reach deeper, spiritual connection to promote comfort and healing processes....