Watson also characterizes nursing as a healing art and science dedicate to the pursuit of harmonious and sacred relationships (George, 2011). Her theory of human caring was first published in 1979 from the vision of theorist Florence Nightingale. “Watson stated that the original intent of her work was to serve as worldwide or ethic by which nursing could explore and understand its tradition and purpose in caring and healing” (George, 2011, p. 455). As a contributing theorist of the developmental model, her human caring theory approach came from Carl Roger’s phenomenological psychology and physiology. She was also influence by several philosophers such as Whitehead, Kirkegaard, and deChardin from a philosophical aspect.
This author will also discuss theory assumptions related to person, health, nursing and environment. This author chose to write about the philosopher/theorist Patricia Benner. Benner uses a humanistic model in her nursing theory. Benner was interested in the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition and applied it to nursing. Benner looked at how nurses learn to do nursing, rather than just how to do nursing.
This will be done through a review of literature and a critique of the theory. It is this author’s hope that fellow practitioners will recognize the importance of Reed’s self-transcendence theory and employ it in their nursing practice. Overview of Theory Main Ideas and Scope of the Theory It is helpful to first define self-transcendence. As first defined by Reed (1991), self-transcendence is an “expansion of self-conceptual boundaries multidimensionally: inwardly (e.g., through introspective experiences), outwardly (e.g., by reaching out to others), and temporally (whereby past and future are integrated into the present)” (p. 71). According to author Doris Coward, Reed has also provided more comprehensive definitions of self-transcendence, which illustrate that perceived boundaries extend beyond the person, thus making the theory pandimensional (2006).
Nursing is a caring profession and caring endorses the profession and is central to nursing. Jean Watson is one nursing theorist that helps to guide the profession of nursing. Her theory also called Theory of Human Caring was developed in 1979 focuses on caring in nursing (Alligood & Tomey 2006). She not only focuses on the patient receiving the care but the caregiver as well. “Watson defines caring as the ethical and moral ideal of nursing that has interpersonal and humanistic qualities” (Alligood, 2010, p.111).
Kozier and Erb (2007) defined nursing theory as providing direction and guidance in structuring profession nursing practice, education, and research while providing differentiation from other disciplines and serving as a template for the assessment, intervention, and evaluation of nursing care [ (Kozier, Erb, Snyder, & Berman, 2007) ]. The spectrum of nursing theory encompasses four metaparadigms consisting of the patient, environment, health, and nursing, with the focus of nursing centering on the patient [ (Kozier, Erb, Snyder, & Berman, 2007) ]. Nursing theory can be divided into a series of specific philosophy, each addressing a different aspect of nursing care with a common end result – enhanced patient care. The theories involve include – needs theory (centered around assisting the individual achieve his/her maximum functional potential), interaction theory (involve the relationship between the nurse and the patient), outcome theory (the nurse is a change force who guides the patient to adapt to illness), and caring/becoming theory (the patient and the nurse are brought together due to the fundamental act of caring) [ (Meleis, 2012) ]. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast a nursing theorist from each of the aforementioned nursing categories.
Assignment 2: Conceptual/critical thinking exercise – The concept of trust and the nurse-patient relationship The concept of trust and nurse-patient relationship The bulk of the nursing literature tends to agree that trust underpins good nursing practice and is a vital component of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship (Hem, Heggen & Ruyter, 2008; Johns, 1996; Belcher, 2009). However, there is much ambiguity in the literature about what this abstract concept actually means. The purpose of this essay is to define and develop the concept of trust as it relates to the nurse-patient relationship. This essay will also highlight the importance of trust in the nurse-patient relationship and some of the good points and bad points about this concept. In addition to this, the role of nursing theory and research in concept development will briefly be discussed.
(2009) also highlights the importance of linking the philosophical perspective of nursing, the disciplinary goals, theory and practice when expanding knowledge for the discipline. Nursing's philosophical basis for disciplinary knowledge is a synthesis of the individual and the common good (McCurry et al., 2009). Knowledge for the discipline expands when philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory and practice are linked together. Further directions of the discipline are revealed when linkages between philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory and practice are strengthen (McCurry et al., 2009). My philosophy of nursing includes three important factors (1) the patient, which may include a family, a community or individuals.
Schemas allow the person to interpret mental and physical actions through the process of obtaining knowledge. Cognitive theory is based on assumptions and accommodation on how a person perceives and adapts to new information. Lazarus and Piaget's theories are applicable in the role of nursing. Nursing is responsible to care for the whole patient. The nurse's role encompasses educator, resource person, coach, and leader.
Mattheq Warren Psy 375 Life span perspective tries to understand how people develop and change through their life (Berger, 2008). The main goal of life span perspective is to concentrate on the continuous change of life, also, how people take in and adapt to the change in their life (Berger, 2008). There are many different ideas that include the properties and influences within the nature vs. nurture catch-22. Recent studies in psychology believe there contains a better understanding of this issue, and rather combines the influences that make out the development of a human life span (Berger, 2008). Of the different theories of Lifespan Development, Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and Erik Erikson's theory of Psychosocial Development are among the key theories of Lifespan Development (Berger, 2008).
Relationship Between Nursing Theory and Practice Abstract In my paper I will discuss the relationship between nursing theory, nursing practice, and how these relate to IOM and QSEN core competencies. I will also summarize one journal article that supports the utilization of a nursing practice. I will discuss my own viewpoint on the utilization of nursing theory as a framework for nursing practice. I will interview two colleagues about using a nursing theory in their practice and I will summarize this information. The history of professional nursing and development of theoretical perspectives on the profession begins with Florence Nightingale, whose key concept of the theory is to facilitate “the body’s reparative processes” by manipulating client’s environment”.