This furthers the communitarian outlook that stressed the prominence of community interests and values. Etzioni was an American political and social writer and was the renowned maker of the communitarian programmed in the early 1990’s. Similar to this, there was an expression of that understand that It was wanted for people who had gained from the success of the 1980’s to show worry for social ills and not just self-interest. This was Douglas Hurd and he felt that people should be a part of their community. In contrast to these there are non-conformists who have faith in the superlative significance of the human individual rather than any social group; these are points of those who are conservative.
Examine the ways in which childhood can be said to be socially constructed (24 marks) A social construct is an idea or concept that has been created and defined within society. Many sociologists argue that childhood is a social construct, as it isn’t a fixed, universal idea, and differs in different areas and time periods. There are historical and cultural differences in how childhood is defined. For example, what kind of childhood a child in the UK goes through will be drastically different to the kind a child in Kenya, or that of a middle age UK person went through. One of the most notable things to examine when looking at what causes childhood to be socially constructed is the work of Phillipe Aries (1960).
Cultural variations in attachment Culture is the set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practises that characterise an institution, organisation or group. Individualistic culture - sees individuals and independence important (Western – UK, USA) Collectivist culture - sees the group/community as important, things are shared, aspire to be interdependent (Japan, Israel) If we judge another If we judge another culture using the values and practices of our own culture this is ethnocentrism. Cross Cultural Similarities (Support’s Bowlby’s view that attachment is universal) Ainsworth (1967) Observed infants attachment behaviour in Uganda Findings: infants used mothers as a secure base for exploration and mothers of securely attached infants showed greater sensitivity towards their infants than those who were insecurely attached Tronik et al (1992) African tribe Infants lived in extended family groups, were looked after and even breastfed by different women but usually slept with their own mother. Despite such differences in child-rearing practices the infants at 6 months, still showed one primary attachment Fox (1977) Studied infants on Israeli kibbutzim, who spent most of their time being cared for in a communal childrens home by metaplot (nurses, 1 nurse = metapelet) Attachment was tested in the SS with either metapelet or mother. Findings: Infant appeared equally attached to both caregivers except in terms of reunion behaviour where they showed greater attachment to their mother.
Methods of micro sociology include symbolic interactionism, phenomenology and ethnomethodology. However there is opposing argument as macro sociologists think the opposite as although they concentrate on individuals as well they also look at families and other larger groups in society in which an individual is part of. Weber a social action theorist believes people hold meanings about the world and consciously act on the basis of meaning. He saw behaviour in terms of the meanings people action to actions and classified them into four types. Instrumentally rational action is when a goal is not desirable but an induvidual still works out the best way to reach it.
RESPONSES TO SUFFERING In their stories, both Alice Walker and James Baldwin undertake the question of national and cultural identity through usage of characters and those characters' responses to their socially constructed identities. Both in ''Everyday Use'' and ''Sonny's Blues'', characters are from colonized countries, not only the land but also the culture of whose is in danger of occupancy. Both Sonny and Dee respond to their heritage but in very different ways. Whereas Sonny actually assumes his own cultural identity and struggles in it, Dee seems to assume, without noticing, the cultural identity that is created for her by the culture which tried to assimilate it in the first place. Dee lives with her mother, Mrs. Johnson, in their poor house and her father is not mentioned.
Abstract In the discipline of Sociology, Structural Functionalism, often referred to as functionalism, centres on the structure and functioning of society. Functionalist theorists view society as constructed of interdependent structures that work together for the benefit of society as a whole. The structural functionalist approach has its detractors, but it still remains the most effective framework for characterising the art of living together in a community. Introduction Structural functionalism has its origins in history with many theorists making significant and often controversial contributions. In this article an attempt is made to define the theory focusing on the structure of society as it has originally been equated to the human body.
The basic human need to be accepted and belong can cloud our judgments and direct our actions. A sense of belonging can emerge from the connections made with people, places and the wider community. It is these connections that influence where meaning is sought out in and individuals life and ultimately, where we belong. In Peter Skrzyneki’s poems ’10 Mary St’, ‘Migrant Hostel’ and the related text, a film called “A Bronx Tale”, directed by Robert Di Nero and written by Chazz Palminteri. The aspect of belonging is influenced and encompassed through a variety of contexts which have both an optimistic and pessimistic effect on the individual and various groups.
Said (1995) explains how this process occurs in the West’s construction of the Orient as exotic. It is important to remember that identities can be experienced and/or applied to others and that what a person feels their ethnic identity is may be different from what another person thinks it is. The family is crucial in creating and reinforcing an individual’s sense of ethnic identity. A family’s surname and first name can portray a sense of ethnic identity, for example the name Gareth Jones suggests a Welsh link. The languages spoken in the family home, the food and clothing selected for children are also important influences.
A bureaucracy that replicates the cultural and ethnic mixture of the population is also likely to be more receptive to the requirements and objectives of marginal groups in a diverse society Representative bureaucracy is mainly focused on the benefits of passive representation, the presence of a public labor force that reflects the demographic features of the society it work for. The viewpoint was first seen in the academic works of J. Donald Kingsley. However, Kingsley’s creation of representativeness in the British Civil Service move away from what is now observed as representative bureaucracy, as he concentrated on social class as one of the most important demographic variables. Following Kingsley’s work, David Levitan addressed the overlook of creating a representative labor force in the public division in the United States, arguing the public would better consent organization actions if the demographic composition of those agencies was similar to that of society. The theory
That is to say that this segregational behavior is deep rooted in human culture; and neighbourhoods, whether the ones of today or of the yesteryears, were perhaps physical manifestations of that behavior. Most of the readings declare Perry as the pioneer for formulating strict guidelines for what a good neighbourhood should be, and for him the neighbourhood was a ‘geographical unit’. It was a ‘closed system’ which includes parameters based on size, boundaries, open spaces, institutional sites, local shops and an internal street system. He talks about how all these basic units which make the neighbourhood need to be predetermined so as to create a healthy neighbourhood fostering good morals and values. Unfortunately, this closed system envisions no potential for growth.