Compare t The Social Idea Lock And Hobbs

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Question 4. Compare and contrast the social contract idea in two of the following theorists: Hobbes, Locke. How is the social contract supposed to legitimise the state? Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were the two main political philosophers during the seventeenth century. Hobbes is well known author of “Leviathan”, and Locke is the author of “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.” Both men address the characteristics of man, natural law, and the purpose and structure of government. These two theorists have very different opinions on the characteristics of man. Hobbes sees man as being evil, whereas Locke views man in a much more optimistic light. They both agree that all men are equal according to natural law, however their ideas on natural law differ greatly. Hobbes sees natural law as a state of war in which every man is an enemy to every man. (Hobbs, T. 1991 p.94) Locke on the other hand, sees natural law as a state of equality and freedom. (Locke, J. 1967 p. 289). This difference of opinion flows through to their views on social contract and this essay will discuss this difference in theory as Locke is of the belief that government is necessary in order to preserve natural law, and on the contrary, Hobbes sees government as necessary in order to control natural law. Both Hobbes and Locke theorise that as the laws of nature do not afford sufficient security everyone has to rely on their own mental and physical strength to defend themselves so they enter into a social contract whereby an agreement by individuals results in the formation of the state or of organized society. The prime motive for the social contract is the desire for protection, but it does entail the surrendering of some or all personal liberties. Whilst Hobbes and Locke differ on different aspects of natural law and social contract, both agree that mutual consent through social contract
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