John Winthrop, the first governor of Massachusetts, emphasized in his sermon that they were to be “a city upon a hill”, where everyone can see them and can be represented as a model Christian community (Doc A), which would also shame England into truly reforming the Church of England. Unlike the Puritans, settlers in Chesapeake were blinded by thoughts of seeking gold, in which they did not find any (Doc F). Most of the Puritans came as families (Doc B) because they believed that society’s foundation rested not on the
First, there is the main theme of both colonies, religion. The summer of 1607 the first colonists stepped foot onto Virginian soil. Observing the settlement of New Spain, the Virginia Company of England also wanted to reap the benefits of the New World “The Virginia Company investors hoped to found an empire that would strengthen England both overseas and at home" . While the colony was run under the pretext of Christianity, the settlers of Jamestown were guided more by their productivity than religion. “…on the whole, religion did not awaken the zeal of Chesapeake settlers…What quickened the pulse of most…folk was a close horse race, a bloody cockfight, or –most of all-an exceptionally fine tobacco crop” On the other hand, the Plymouth colony, settled in 1620, had very different grounds for emigrating from England.
Winthrop said they must “delight in each other, make others’ conditions our own…” (Document A). By the 1700s the New England settlers had created a colony that was very dependent on each other and God. The Chesapeake colonies had very different settlers, however. On a manifest with seventy five names, sixty four of them were men who came to the New World to make a fortune and get out of debt (Document C). While fighting the Dutch Governor Berkeley identified one third of his fighting men as single and many of which were in debt (Document G).
In America, all the states came together to create one unified group, but each colony is dissimilar and unique. Going back to the mother country England, Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church because they believed not everyone should be part of the church. They sought refuge in New England to worship their own religion. Others desired a change in lifestyle. Englishmen saw the Chesapeake as a place to make profit.
As the colonists wanted to develop their own form of government, they also wanted to pursue their own form of religion. Religious freedom was one of the main goals of the settlers coming to the colonies. The Church of England was very controlling when the settlers lived in England, and many colonists wanted to get away from a tightness of the Church of England's grip. Many of them wanted to go to the colonies to worship freely on how they wanted to. Although many different religions were explored in the colonies such as the many Protestant religions, the Anglican dominance stayed amongst in the colonies.
By 1700, their religious practices, family relations, and political differences led them in two different directions. New England was a refuge for religious separatists leaving England, while people who immigrated to the Chesapeake region had no religious motives. John Winthrop states that the Puritan goal was to form "a city upon a hill", which would represent a "pure" community, where Christianity could be pursued (Document A).To New England, religion was considered to be most important thing while the colonists that landed at Jamestown in 1607 were not as religiously inclined as the Puritans. The History of Virginia, written by the leader of the colony John Smith in 1624, describes how hard it was in the first few years at Jamestown (Document F). There was little food, new diseases, lots of quarreling between the settlers and they had many problems with the Indians (Document H).
Smith believes that the worst of those that he traveled with were the ones who wanted to make “all men their slaves” (paragraphs 2). They were overconfident, unrealistic, and seemed to lack the ability to treat other human beings with dignity and respect. Many colonists were also brought in as criminals who were simply taking up room in England. Many of these men went down south, to Georgia. Another important fact that I need to recognize is that the composition of the people that came to America was inherently different.
The Middle Passage The slave trade was a major business that made many people rich, but made many more people very poor. Starting around the 1500s, what was once a peaceful trade between Africans and Europeans became a corrupt trade of non-equality and unfairness. Many books, laws, and protests were made but nothing could stop the greedy slave masters. One slave named Olaudah Equiano, describes what his life was like as a slave in his book called The Kidnapped Prince The Life of Olaudah Equiano. Equiano depicts horrifying details of his life.
There were many problems African Americans were facing before the New Deal became an instrument in the saving of the United States economy. Because of the Depression, African Americans workers were pushed out of jobs, favoring White workers. Because Blacks were last hired and first fired, it made it easier for them to lose their jobs at faster rates. The near subjugation of the tenant farming system destroyed many work opportunities for blacks to have any work because many black agricultural workers did not have other job skills, they were highly unlikely to get employment elsewhere. Many black farmers could not obtain contracts for their crops.
Slave raids and even wars increased. A young man named Equiano was one of these very slaves. He thought “that he had got into a world of bad spirits, and that the whites were going to kill him.”(Equiano, 10) After the potential slaves were kidnapped, merchants forced them to walk in slave caravans to the European coastal forts. Which was sometimes as far as 1,000 miles. Locked up and poorly fed, only half the Africans survived these death marches.