Describe the assumptions of the major theoretical orientations in psychology, i.e. Psychodynamic, Behaviourist, Cognitive and Humanistic The purpose of this essay is to describe, explain and analyse the major psychological approaches and highlight their strengths and limitations. But what psychology is about? There are many ways to try answer the question. However, the most straightforward answer is that psychology is about understanding people; how they think, what they say and why they do what they do.
Wundt’s structuralism approach wanted to recognize the building blocks, or the structure, of the psychological functioning. Structuralism focused on uncovering the fundamental mental components of perception, consciousness, thinking, emotions, and other kinds of mental states and activities. In addition, structuralism relied on the method called introspection, which was utilized by Wundt and colleagues like student Edward Titchener. Introspection is the process used to explore human mental function as they complete assorted tasks. These psychologists’ primary interest lied in how individuals processed sensory stimuli.
Psychoanalytic Personality Assessment TaWonnia Jackson PSY250 September 6, 2012 Loretta Harris Psychoanalytic Personality Assessment The following statements discussed will analyze the components of the psychoanalytic approach to personality. The theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler are compared and contrasted by research found. There will be characteristics of two theories along with descriptions of the stages to Freud’s theory, and characteristics along with Freudian's defense mechanisms. Each theorist’s had their own unique way of developing their very own theory. Sigmund Freud's theory is the psychoanalytic theory unique to a certain point and which it has developed formal models describing the ways in which individuals process information on different levels (Bornstein, 2010).
Psychology is developed by theories and research to answer issues concerning the behavior and mental processes of people and society. The scientific method portion of psychology is to gain knowledge and understanding of questions that need to be answered by using logic and methods. Shaughnessy and Zechmeister, (2009) explains that there are two important characteristics of the scientific method: the empirical approach and a skeptical attitude. To view psychology as a science, philosophers had to emphasize the empirical approach as a direct way of answering questions when focusing on behaviors and experiences that could be observed directly (Shaughnessy, & Zechmeister, 2009). The skeptical attitude of a researcher is driven from the conclusions on the interest of empirical evidence rather than a researcher’s personal opinion.
Running Head: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Introduction This paper is intended to discuss the psychoanalytic theory as developed by Sigmund Feud. The paper will also discuss the differences between the relational and isolated-mind view of human and emotion distress. I will also discuss the Heinz Kohut’s psychology of the self. I will also take time to highlight the differences between a theory that understands emotional distress as emanating from the inside of the patient alone versus theories that understand distress as emanating from the relational contexts in which self objects needs are not being met. Further still, I will discuss the differences between the theories that see the patient’s behavior as coming from patients mind alone versus the theories that see the patient as reacting to his/her environment.
Part 1 Describe the similarities and differences in the way identity is conceptualised by the psychosocial theory of identity and social identity theory This essay will look into some similarities and differences within two main identity theories. The psychosocial theory introduced by German psychoanalyst Erik Erikson (1902- 1994) and developed by an American psychologist James Marciaand, also Social Identity Theory introduced by European Jew Henri Tajfel (1919- 1982). Dorothy Miell, Ann Phoenix and Kerry Thomas, (2007) explain that the way we see and describe ourselves together with how we think others see us is a definition of identity. Identity is a very complex topic within psychology and has been studied in deep for many years. Psychosocial theory recognises personal and social element of identity however Erikson seen them as interlinked and treated them separately.
(p1 UNDERSTANDING COUNSELLING THEORY In this assignment I am going to show my knowledge and understanding of Person Centred Approach,(PCA) I will also be reflecting on two other therapeutic models of counselling, these will include, Transactional Analysis(TA) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy(CBT). 1.1 Phenomenology is the study of subjective experience; it first came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, Husserl who had trained as a mathematician but was attracted to philosophy.They conducted philosophical investigations of the consciousness and identified a set of theoretical approaches that attempt to understand the ways in which people experience the world they create and inhabit. (A overview of PCA www.sagepub.com 2010 p9) Carl Rogers(1902-1987) was one of the most influential psychologists in American history and was influenced from Husserls work and in 1962, with the help of Abraham Maslow, went on to found the Association for Humanistic psychology. Rogers was the founder of what he originally called 'non-directive therapy(Rogers 42) which he later changed to 'client centred therapy', today it is commonly known as 'person centred approach'. The development of PCA stemmed from Rogers experience of being a client and his experience of working as a counsellor,which gave rise to the views he developed about Behaviourism and psychoanalytic approaches to counselling.
Social psychology has in roots in the beginning of the 20th century in America. On the whole it was a positivist approach, using experimental methods to conduct its research – laboratory experiments which were thoroughly objective, it wanted to find the link of cause and effect in individual’s behaviour. It wanted to determine the laws of human nature and prove them using empirical techniques. After World War II the influx of research in social psychology increased, with the emergence of academics such as Asch and Milgram, who were interested the issues of conformity and obedience, partially
The period from approximately 1930 to 1950 was marked by the establishment of the field and the development of a number of general systems. Gordon Allport (1937, as cited in McAdams, 2009) viewed personality psychology as the study of the individual person-an idiographic approach to personality-and how that individual adjusted to his environment. During that period however, other Psychologists had a nomothetic approach to personality in which personality emphasized how people were different from one another, as well as how they were alike. American psychology searched for universal laws that applied to all organisms instead of individualized studies. The period from 1950 to 1970 marked a second historical phase.
Also I will share some psychological perspectives that can explain human behavior. The interaction between genetic potential, environmental influences, and personal choice is a long-standing debate in the field of psychology is the degree to which nature and shape human behaviors that are describing. Scientist and psychologist use research as a way to discover knowledge that is new. Mental health, business, education, medicine and sports can be applied to psychology as way of solving problems. Critical thinking is something that many psychologists rely on mostly for information that is received through scientific research.