The Mongols had many political influences on China and Russia. The Mongol rule caused many power changes and reforms in both China and Russia. The Mongols destroyed cities and forms of government rule using terror tactics as a form of governing. They also wanted to control both states with easy access. So in China, the capital was moved to Beijing causing it to be the center of politics and commerce in China.
When conquering China, the Mongols kicked the bureaucratic elite to the curb, hired new foreign rulers, and eliminated the civil service examinations. On the contrary, the Mongols in Russia weren’t as strict and direct. While Chinese traditions were eliminated, Russian princes were allowed to rule and a whole new dual system of regional administration was set up. Another contrast is centers of power for each state. In China, the main center of commerce was modern day Beijing.
Mongol Compare Essay During the 12th and 13th centuries, The Mongol Empire expanded to take over many other empires, including China and Russia, Mongol rule over these two regions had various similar and different political and economic effects. In China, the Mongols burdened the Chinese people with heavy taxes, The Russian people also had to pay Tribute, a form of taxes, to the Mongols. However, in Russia the Mongols would allow the native to continue to rule their own country in exchange for these taxes. To contrast, in China the Mongols actually ruled over the Chinese people and even formed their own Chinese-style dynasty. As previously mentioned, the one major economic similarity in the effect of Mongol rule on China and Russia was the way the Mongols had the people in both regions pay taxes.
The Mongols ruled China from a period in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and controlled Russia from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries. While the Mongols had similar political and economic effects in China and Russia, they were more heavy-handed while controlling China than they were controlling Russia. The Mongols’ influence in China and Russia included many political effects, including changes in power, destroying cities and forms of government rule, replacing them with new governing systems. In China, the Khans became more powerful, while in Russia, the Czars emerged as the dominant rulers. Also in Russia, the Mongols formed an alliance with the Orthodox Church, consequently giving more political power to the church.
The arrival of Euorpean traders in the 1500's made the Chinese government nervous and as a result, isolated the people for fear of cultural changes. However, because of the high demand for goods, trade continued to take place illegally. When the dynasty collapsed and the Manchus took over, trade was controlled overseas. In the Qing Dynasty, trade made for a huge population growth in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Trade with America caused this growth through their introduction of new crops to China.
Mongol conquest in both Middle East and China encouraged the long-distance trade routes of Eurasia while also leading to the creation of one of the worst pandemics in history. While Mongol Rule was similar in China and the Middle East, the Mongols in China were much more tolerant of other religions than the Mongols in the Middle East who had everyone converted to Islam by force. The conquered peoples of China possessed many religions such as Buddhism, Confucianism, and others. These Chinese religions were tolerated much better by the Mongols, than the religions of the Middle East. The conflict between Mongol and Muslim beliefs is illustrated by the fate of the last Abbasid caliph when Hulegu’s troops stormed Baghdad is 1258.
The first structured dynasty of china the Shang created the structure for Chinese political and administrative formulation which was slightly altered but not greatly changed when the Zhou dynasty took over in 1027 B.C.E some of the Shang ideology’s we’re altered to match the Zhou’s but many we’re kept the same to appease the citizens. Eventually these dynasties have appeared all over Asia and went into a period of warfare against each other called the Warring States Period. After the period was resolved by unification of the empires and reforms the first Chinese empire appeared called the Qin Empire. Although the Qin didn’t last long, they performed many great acts such as created thousands of miles of roads to help unify China and canals connecting the river systems of Northern and Southern China. This helped pave the way for greater development however the harsh oppression of force labor to make all these things make the Qin empire weak to rebellion and fell when Shi Huangdi the emperor died in 210 B.C.E passing the empire ship to the long
How far did the Cultural Revolution strengthen Mao’s personal control of China? Prior to the Cultural Revolution of 1966-9, Mao’s personal power over China had been weakened due to the rise of several political opponents and the power struggle between the years 1962-5 which meant that the Cultural Revolution increased Mao’s personal power to a significant extent. However whilst Mao may of now had ultimate authority, this came at the expense of the increased militarism of China and in turn led to the increased power of both Lin Biao and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). There are other aspects that the Cultural Revolution had an impact in terms of power that allowed Mao’s own power to be strengthened including, the weakening of the Chinese Communist Party, the militarism of China and the power of the army it’s leader Lin Biao. It can be argued that the Cultural Revolution strengthened Mao’s personal power, because one of the main outcomes was the weakening of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and their power.
In China and the Middle East, politically Mongol rule effected who did the governing, and Mongol rule at first disrupted economies before facilitating trade on a large scale, and effected whether or not they converted to the Mongol-style nomadic economy. In China, the Mongols didn't trust the Chinese, so they got a lot of foreign peoples to come and do the governing. The great khans also dismantled the Chinese traditional Confucian way of government. In Persia, the situation was very different; the Mongols took the highest positions of government, but still gave the lower government positions to Persians. The Mongols didn't dismantle the Persian government; instead they used it to their own advantage.
It was perhaps the Han dynasty, (which lasted over 400 years), that enforced and maintained peace and prosperity most successfully. As varied as the dynasties are, it is best to examine each one separately to determine the exact relationship between them. The Zhou Dynasty was more successful in some areas than others. It managed to expand the territory of China by taking over the Yangtze River valley, which eventually became China’s core. But the expansion of land weakened China’s ‘central government’, and made it vulnerable against any disloyal citizens.