Compare and Contrast Perspectives on Child Development

263 Words2 Pages
Behavioral theories came from John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner. John B. Watson argued that psychologists should examine only what they could see and determine if psychology was to be a science. Behaviorists think that everything can be learned. They found that the unconscious motives and drives that Freud described were difficult to verify to the scientific method. Behaviorists are also called “learning theorists” because they believe that all behavior is learned, step by step. Learning theorists focus on conditioning which is when children learn to observe others. Psychoanalytic perspectives have to do with Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Psychoanalytic theory are based on inner drives and motives that originated from Freud. Freud came up with five stages for children that are psychosexual, including the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency, and genital stage, and the genital stage which lasts throughout adulthood. Erikson developed eight stages, five for childhood and three for adulthood which are the psychosocial stages. Freud kept it that at each stage, sensual satisfaction is linked to developmental needs, challenges, and conflicts, and how people experience and resolve them. The early stages provide the foundation for adult behavior. Erikson, like Freud, also believed that problems of adult life echo the conflicts of childhood. For example, an adult who has difficulty establishing a secure, close relationship with a life partner may never have resolved the first crisis of early infancy. Erikson believed that earlier crises leave there imprint, even in old age. However, Erikson's stages different significantly from Freud's in that they emphasize family and
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