1) Describe one way in which Milgrams research is unethical. Milgram did not obtain informed consent from his participants and deceived them. Milgrams participants did not know the true purpose of the experiment as they thought the study was investigating punishment on learning rather than obedience. They therefore could not give informed consent. This is a limitation because it raises ethical concerns and would not be acceptable under the current BPS (British Psychological Society) guidelines for conducting research.
Weber wanted science to be applied to sociological research. However he said that science could not be successfully applied due to people showing emotions when they interact with each other and this cannot be repeated in test tubes in a lab. Weber also argued that all research should not be forced to make value judgments. Weber developed the term verstehen, which he described as attempting to prevent the meanings and values into
Research helps understand the states of consciousness, sensory experiences, emotions, motivations, and more (Willingham, 2007). Criticism of behaviorism Behaviorism failed to answer questions, explains aspects and human processes that cognitive psychology was able to do. Behaviorism’s main focus was what could be observed in behavior and why a behavior was done with a reward. Cognitive psychology came about because of what behaviorism was unable to explain and the criticisms that came with it. Such as, why behaviorism could not explain why a person did something without being given a reward.
“Soon, we will come to be afraid of our persona's and personalities, it will be clear that they are by no means ours” (Gombrowicz, 2000). There is no one definition of personality that would satisfy both layman and psychologists. It has been a subject of human studies since the first philosophers. Both Aristotle and Hippocrates where interested in the subject, though up until the 19th century the discussion was about character, not personality. Psychologist differ from these attempts in their use of the scientific method, using both clinical and experimental studies to evaluate the construct of personality.
What can the gray zone tell us on these grounds? Levi is not a historian and is not obliged to settle the conflict between judgment about identity and judgment about behaviors. However, he writes: “Each individual is so complex that there is no point in trying to foresee his behavior… nor is it possible to foresee one’s own behavior.”59 He also demonstrates that even in extreme situations an analysis of actions and practices is the best way to reach a credible approximation of reality. Even though various people as individuals or as groups appear in the gray zone, Levi describes the gray zone mostly in terms of functions, practices, and states of mind, weaknesses and/or resistance. This is true even in the case of Rumkowski, who
He thinks that Aquinas had made an error in linking cause and effect – as have any other humans that have done the same. Cause and effect are two completely different things, linked incorrectly in the mind by induction. Hume argues that because of this error, there is no cause and effect chain and therefore, no first cause. He argues that we have no direct experience of the creation of the universe and so we cannot speak meaningfully about it. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) agrees with the idea that we cannot try to comprehend something outside of our reach – we can
One could argue that the logical positivists were unsuccessful in arguing that religious language is meaningless because the verification principle has many weaknesses. For example Strong verification is not possible to talk meaningfully about history as no self- observation can confirm historical events. Swinburne stated that strong verification excludes all types of universal statements as there may be a random event that occurs that may mean that this cannot be verified. However, A.J Ayer developed a solution for this which is the weak verification principle. This form of the principle allows for statements to have meaning if the means to which a statement can be verified are known.
The Educated Imagination by Northrop Frye, as well as Eslinger’s “Ecology of Myth,” both examine the origins of knowledge and the role it plays in society. However, both texts, in addition to Timothy Findley’s Not Wanted on the Voyage, William Shakespeare’sHamlet, and the film Waking Life, can be used to prove that this quest for knowledge is useless. The pursuit of knowledge is futile, as there is no such thing as true knowledge. Attempts to attain something which does not exist results in the entering of an endless cycle of illusion. Here, individuals enter a constant state in which they try to convince themselves of what they believe to be truth and become ignorant.
Leibniz’s Rationalism Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz states that we have innate concepts and knowledge of necessary truths, which cannot be false and true in every possible way. Contingent truths are true in some possible worlds and false in others. Unlike empiricists, he believes that not all knowledge of the world comes from experience. Thus, in an a priori fashion, he believes that some of our knowledge of the world is independent of experience and can come from reason alone. He argues that experience only is not enough to justify the knowledge we have, because universal and necessary truths cannot be justified by experience, such as mathematical and scientific laws.