He argued that there are particular points in the development process, arguing that a single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation. These erogenous zones are the mouth, the anus, and the genital region. He argued that the child’s libido centres on behaviour affecting the primary erogenous zones of his age. He also argued then that a child cannot focus on the primary erogenous zone of the next stage without resolving the developmental conflict of the current or immediate one. Freud argued that a child at their stage of development have certain
In this essay Freud sets out his theory of psychosexual development. He asserts that there is in all humans an innate drive or instinct for pleasure, a sort of psychic energy, which he calls the libido and this energy needs to be discharged. He then goes on to describe how this drive finds outlet at the earliest stages of life, as babies, toddlers and infants and describes the oral, anal and phallic stages and the psychological effects of fixation at these stages. It is important to note that Freud separated sexual aims and objectives. His work on sexuality and perversions led to the wider theory of sexuality whereby he differentiated the sexual aim (the desire for pleasure) and the object (the person or thing used to fulfil the desire).
Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud is the founder of the psychodynamic approach. This approach focuses on the unconscious mind to explain behaviour, and also to treat people suffering from mental illness. This approach also looks into our behaviour and feelings as adults, as our childhood experiences and Interpol relationships can explain this. Freud believes that what drives our behaviour is conflict that arises between three parts of our psych, the id, superego and the ego. The three personalities of the psych are usually out of sync with each other.
Isolation stage. An example of Freud’s Genital stage was a young adult would search for sexual pleasure, and they will be able to involve themselves in adult, loving relationships. Erikson’s stage agreed that this is the time when people will develop intimate relationships with others. Freud and Erikson also differed on their psycho-sexual and psychosocial theories. Freud’s theory focuses more on sex and pleasure, consisting of the five different pleasure stages of life.
Bowlby's aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would have on an infant's later development. Drawing on much work in the psychoanalytic literature, such as that of Freud and Harlow, Bowlby formulated the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure early in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a
Written Assignment 1 Bryan Lindsey, Chesapeake Virginia Developmental Psychology Dr. Robert Wolf 05 Feb 2011 Written Assignment 1 1. Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Erikson. (Chapter 2) The psychoanalytic theories of both Freud and Erickson are similar in many ways, but Erickson recognized a wide range of outcomes from the eight developmental stages that being different from Freud’s five stages. Freud believed that development in the first six years occurred in the three stages (Stassen). Freud believed that each stage focused on sexual pleasure that came or originated from a particular part of the body.
Describe and evaluate the psychodynamic approach Psychodynamic psychologists assume that our behaviour is determined by unconscious forces of which we are unaware. Each manifest (surface) thought, utterance or behaviour hides a latent(hidden) motive or intention. The latent motives for our behaviour reflect our instinctive biological drives and our early experiences, particularly before the age of five. Most particularly, it is the way we are treated by our parents as children that shapes our adult behaviour. Sigmund Freud developed an approach on abnormality that highlighted how human personality and psychosexual development in childhood can cause abnormality.
It is the product of an unconscious mind being driven by its most basic desires and emotions in coaction with our traits determined by our early childhood experiences. The other main assumption of the Psychodynamic approach is that our personality is made up of three conflicting elements – The Id, the Ego, and the Superego. These three elements make up the “structure of personality”, as Freud explained it. He states that the Id exists in the unconscious mind and is concerned with instant gratification as it is controlled be instinctual forces. This element is innate – it is present from birth.
From birth, we experience auto-eroticism moving towards reproductive sexuality as we develop into adulthood. According to Freud, this development trajectory was not negotiable. Freud believed that all ‘abnormal’ sexual behaviours were at one time acceptable for children, but represent fixations on early stages of development. He believed that individuals who experience problems along the way will have adult personality characteristics represented at that stage explain!! Sexual repression Prohibition of sexual behaviours leads to anxiety, fear, worry, repression, and hysteria The five stages of psychosexual development are as follows:- The Oral Stage – From birth to approximately 18 months.
Freud believed that everyone’s psychological issues were a result of repressed sexual thoughts, however, Ecacott (1999) states that “ Freud’s description was largely anecdotal. It was not until later that that objective evidence of childhood amnesia was gathered.” (Ecacott, p. 46) Another explanation of childhood amnesia that has been discussed is from the neurological viewpoint, believing that young children’s brains are not fully developed and are unable to store the vast, detailed memories and therefore these specific memories are not able to be recalled at a later date. Radvansky (2006), also discusses the importance of language acquisition, in saying that “infantile amnesia reflects an inability to organize information into coherent life narrative, which can then be used to help retrieval.” (Radvansky, p. 141) The emergence of self theory (or the theory of self) looks at the concept of infants developing a self identity. This allows the infant to begin viewing themselves as “I” and “me” and this concept of self identity continues to expand as the child ages. Throughout many articles, discussion took place around the idea that traumatic events such as sexual assault, mental, emotional and physical assault impacted what a person could remember of their childhood and more specifically of their earliest memory.