The pyramids of Egypt are the best known example of Egyptian architecture. According to the ancient Egyptian belief, pyramids were built to protect the bodies of Egypt kings and royalty for their life after death. Pyramids can be defined as large structures with four triangular sides that meet in a point at the top, directly over the centre of the pyramid’s square base. There are approximately 110 pyramids currently known in Egypt, most of them in bad condition and almost destroyed and others that have remained unfinished. The first pyramid built that was similar to a true pyramid, was built during the 3rd Dynasty – 2630 B.C.
The buildings of the central government were typically open-air temples constructed of wood or sandstone. The earliest hieroglyphs appear just before this period, though little is known of the spoken language they represent. In about 3600 BC, Egyptian society along the Nile River began to grow and advance rapidly toward civilization.  A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery of the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time.
------------------------------------------------- Horus Horus | Horus was often the ancient Egyptians' nationalpatron god. He was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent, or a red and white crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt. | Major cult center | Nekhen, Behdet Edfu | Symbol | The wedjat eye | Parents | Osiris and Isis in some myths, andNut and Geb in others. | Siblings | Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys(in some accounts) | Consort | Hathor (in one version) | Offspring | Imsety, Hapi, Duamutef,Qebehsenuef and Ihy | Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the
The Unique Culture of Egypt While the Sumerian civilization was developing, a similar process took place along the banks of the Nile River. Yet, the two civilization’s culture was very different. Egypt was united into a single kingdom, which allowed it to enjoy a high degree of unity, stability, and culture continuality over a period of 3,000 years. The geography, writing, architectural structures, society, and their process of mummification made the Egyptian culture unique compared to the other civilizations of the time. The Ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of land, the “black land” and the “red land.
Within the cities were centralized large pyramid structures. While the Egyptians used their pyramids mostly for the tombs of great kings, the Maya used their pyramids or both tombs and religious ceremonial centers. The Mayas pyramids were for sacrifices, praises, and in a sense ancestor veneration centers for the elites. Also, the Egyptians and the Maya both had calendar systems, although they were very different. The Egyptians calendar revolved around the annual flooding of the Nile river which brought rich silt to the valley, and was the beginning of the agricultural season for the Egyptians.
Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurred in what is present-day Sudan, after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kings of Napata. While Napatan rule was brief and ceased in 661 BC, the Egyptian influence made an indelible impression, and during the later Sudanese Kingdom of Meroe (approximately in the period between 300 BC–300 AD) this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred indigenous, but Egyptian-inspired royal pyramid-tombs constructed in the vicinity of the kingdom's capital cities. Al-Aziz Uthman, son of the great Saladin who crushed the Crusaders, tried to demolish
Egyptian and Shang civilizations had many similarities. Most notable was their politics. Both had powerful kings, though the Egyptian kings were known as Pharaohs. The leaders of both civilizations were political as well as religious leaders. Pharaohs were viewed as gods of Earth and had a great deal of religious influence over the Egyptian people.
Only an individual whose lineage was from a royal family could use these tombs for burial. The most primitive Egyptian pyramids are in Saqqara. Saqqa is in the northwest of Memphis. The earliest pyramid built is the pyramid of Djoser. According to archaeologists, its construction took place during the third dynasty (Smyth 45).
Pyramids at Giza The Giza pyramids are one of the most known earliest and most known pieces of architecture to man, and are main structures of Egyptian architecture. The pyramids at Giza are also one of the seven wonders of the world. The pyramids were thought to be a resting place for Pharoahs, who were also known as the “divine” and human leaders of the Egyptian people, and were built so high to show a closeness to heaven. The size and the precision of how they were built created an unending fascination for the pyramids. The pyramids at Giza are shown to be the pinnacle of Egyptian architecture through the meaning and construction behind the pyramids.
SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION The Sumerian civilization originated around 4000 BC and went on until 1450 BC when the Hittites took control of the region. Mesopotamia, the land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, was located in what is now Southern Iraq. This territory, when skillfully irrigated, offered a fertile settlement for the arousal of cities. Sumerian cities had self-government and they were independent. Therefore, each city state had its own deities, kings, laws and culture.