Hitler's pursuit of Lebensraum resulted in Germany exhibiting ultranationalism towards its neighbours. The ultranationalism that Germany was demonstrating led to expansionism and ultimately led the world to a second world war. Hitler created a distorted version of Darwin's Theory of Evolution, known as Social Darwinism. This principle stated that a nations strength was measured by its ability to fight and win wars; any nation displayed to be weak or unable to fight was a target for conquest. Hitler displayed ultranationalism when he put Social Darwinism into action, he was creating a master race.
Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people’s will on one select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom all power proceeds downward (www.spu.edu). The apogee of Fascism can be best described by the chronological analysis of the trends and objectives of Fascism through the period from the end of WWI to the end of WWII, when the two most recognized names were Italy’s Benito Mussolini and Germany’s Adolf Hitler (www.fordham.edu).
This propaganda continued even once they had won the election. Furthermore, once the Nazi’s had gained power, they began to push anti-Jew and other very racist and fascist propaganda on the people of Germany. Hitler was shown in newspapers and presented on the radio as a strong and just leader; with the Jews being represented as evil. Propaganda was therefore crucial to the maintenance of power by the Nazis as it meant when they began their attack on the Jews, they had the support of their people. Furthermore, it can be argued that propaganda was crucial to the maintenance of power by the Nazis as they portrayed Hitler as powerful and showed him to be good for the country, making sure people continued to show support for the Nazis and it portrayed Hitler as above all party politicking and as a figure for national focus and loyalty.
They argued that Imperialism played a major role in the war. Lenin stated that “Imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism”, this thesis was further supported by Emil Ludwig which stated that war was caused due to incapable leaders. On the other hand, many revisionist historians argue that the war was caused by nationalism, imperialism, militarism and the system of alliances. In Britain, the historian A.J.P. Taylor wrote a book called “The Struggle for Mastery in Europe”, in this book A.J.P.
And he's ideals was a major influence in America going to war. Wilson was ready to take the opportunity of this major war and push his ideals of democracy and independence for the many nations of Europe. Although the League of Nations would fail to pass the U.S. Senate and only would eventually fall apart his ideals would live on and push the country to war in the name of democracy. And that is why Wilson's idealism was one of three main major influences in America's push for
Adolf Hitler and Josef Stalin were both powerful, ambitious leaders that worked their way into positions of power. Stalin took over after Lenin died to lead the USSR after the Russian Revolution. Hitler became leader of the Nazi Party and gained the people’s support with promises of a strong leader that resisted western powers. On their rise to power, both Stalin and Hitler became leaders of political parties, eliminated opposing parties, and promised a better future for the people and country, but Stalin used the people’s support as leverage in his power struggle with Trotsky while Hitler used his passion and the economic situation in Germany to become leader of the Nazi party and gain support over the socialists. Both Hitler and Stalin started their journey towards power by joining political parties.
Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler gained power by promising to restore German strength. He built up the German military and began a campaign of expansion. Similar actions took place in Italy under dictator Benito Mussolini and in Japan under Japanese militarists.
Early fascists theorised about this leader, for example Friedrich Nietzsche was a man who influenced fascism and theorised about an “Ubermensch” which loosely translates to the “superman” who he describes as a man who lives by his own will and morality. This was interpreted by most 20th century fascists as a theory that one man could have unquestionable leadership of a country, this is sown by both Hitler and Mussolini declaring themselves supreme rulers of their nations under the titles of “Der Fuhrer” and “Il Duce” respectively. Therefore showing that one of the most fundamental aspects of fascism is strong leadership and therefore the value placed on it is extremely high. Shown by most examples of fascism having been attempts at a totalitarian state in which the dictator has absolute power and control therefore these nations would not have survived without their leaders. Fascisms beliefs regarding class structure are extremely feudal as the elite in society take orders from the leader who then spread these orders across the masses.
Rational choice is the theory that decison makers choose on the basis of what is best for themselves and their states. Nationalism is the mind set gloryfing a particular state and the nationality group living in the state which beleives the state interest is the supreme value. Realism is the thought that interstate competition is natural and all states should prepeare to go to war and compete to avoid it. Irredentism refers to the movement of an ethnic national group to regain controll of lost territory by force. Facism which is the promotion of extreme nationalism and establishment of and authoriatarian society built around a signle party with dictatorial leadership.
Theories and Perspectives in Twentieth Century Totalitarian Regimes Discuss Competing Perspectives On The Maintenance of Power in One or More 20th Century Totalitarian Regimes This essay will examine the maintenance of power in fascist Italy after the October 1922 ‘March on Rome’.Benito Mussolini’s political assertiveness and opportunism had helped him capitalise on the fear of a socially complex and politically divided Italy. This essay will explore the measures he and his party took to reign in Italy’s economic and social instabilities, and how he literally disposed of the country’s political divisions. Theseactions would see his fascist party, The PNF, become the first Totalitarian Regime, and the model from which later regimes would be established. I will make comparative analysisof,and identify parallels between Mussolini’s PNF and Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party in Germany and I will deliberate competing perspectives on the function and viability of the economic, political and social programmes and policies of the party. I will use quantative data where possible to give me a better insightinto both the competing academic perspectives and the influence and effectiveness of the regimes endeavours, which will go towards helpingmeformulate as informed a conclusion of my own as possible.