European imperialism in Africa was partly due to rivalries between the different European countries involved, with Britain, Germany and France the dominant powers. As Professor Richard Evans of the University of Cambridge observes, by the 1880s “rivalries and interventions had been building up already over several decades.” Each country aimed to increase its own prestige by accumulating territories in other parts of the world. Such was the rivalry between European powers that, in 1884 and 1885, the
One effect was they both shared was being connected globally to other places around the world and interacting with them. However the two continents had a much more different effects than shared ones. In Africa, the Atlantic slave trade cause major disruption between different groups of people which resulted in a lot of violence and civil war. The Europeans, because of what they were earning, were able to expand their middle class so that their social system was not secular. African groups of people were also split up into kingships and because so many of them were being imported to Europe they brought their type of community wight hem when they were traded, one can see that the slaves definitely form something similar to these types of groups when they were settled down.
Between 1500-1800 C.E. Sub-Saharan Africa experienced changes and continuity as they began to go further with their foreign relations. Culturally, Africa began to form syncretic cults that had Christian teachings and African traditions. Slavery continued to be one of Africa's main way of showing economic wealth. Africa experienced growth and change in their political organization and the rise and fall of kingdoms and states Before the syncretic cults, Africa's old traditions and beliefs surrounded deities, idols, and multiple gods.
Western Europe experienced the largest amount of changes because the main countries that were becoming involved in international trade were located here. These countries include England, Spain, and Portugal. After contact had first been made with people on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the first stock exchange was set up in 1538, which represented a steady economy and businesses that could be trusted to continue success within the companies. Along with the new businesses and technology, through international trade, new products were introduced to Europe such as tobacco and potatoes. Companies that focused on trade were also introduced, such as the Dutch, English, and French East India companies.
The changes that occurred in Africa caused for Africa to become a premier area on the rise as a result of European influence. The social changes in Africa caused for Africa to have a series of public reformations which caused for Africa to become a more civilized area. Bethwell Ogot prominent historian and author of African Political, Economics and Social Structures During this Time Period analyzed how the religion had a major impact on the societal changes in Africa, “In the religious area, European and Middle Eastern philosophies and religions in Africa began to impinge, with Christianity and Islam becoming political forces in new areas”(Ogot 24). Islam and Christianity would play a significant part in the social changes of Africa because it allowed for the development of Africa into a more civilized area. These two religions were brought to Africa from foreign countries therefore the presence of foreign nations would play a significant role in the development of Africa.
Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa. The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism", by military influence and economic dominance, to the direct rule of a people, which brought about colonial imperialism. The social and economic effects of European Imperialism in Africa are, economy, military, and social class. Africa was a new market for manufactured goods that could be sold for high prices, and was also a source of raw materials that could be manufactured. Although, in the grand scheme of the African economy, it grew to a more global position, the social or individual part, suffered greatly.
Prompt: Using the following documents, characterize the achievements of the African kingdoms, empires, and cities before the arrival of Europeans. All around the world, from continent to continent, civilizations were annexing by form of expansion into other and further areas of the world during the 1400’s and 1500’s. Some civilizations were successful, and others were not with the addition of other cultures to a preexisting culture already forged in that area. African civilizations flourished greatly before the arrival of Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Powerful wealthy empires in Africa included Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
Henry M. Stanley was sent to Africa after they had lost track of Livingston to find him. Stanley also led several of the explorations through central Africa himself. Europe grew great interest in Africa and their abundance of resources after hearing of Stanley and Livingston’s reports. European countries eventually started making claims on Africa. France ordered Algiers in hopes to colonize it.
Africa Imperialism of Africa was directly related to three factors, economic, political, and social. After the collapse of the profitable anti-slave trade, expansion of European capitalist Industrial Revolution there was a demand and assurance of raw material, because Africa was so large and fruitful this brought about the scramble for Africa. European powers, Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain sought out to gain control of land. This was so intense that the presence of fear of war would evolve, a treaty instilled by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck was produced at the famous Berlin West Africa conference known as the Berlin Act in hopes of preventing conflict and war. Africa did not partake in the treaty and eventually use military resistance.
The expansionist system of the world trade was fuelled by competition between dominant capitalist powers to establish spheres of influence. This could consequently grant them “control of land, raw material and resources of cheap labour. With each African nation, different form of resources was offered to imperialist countries of the west and therefore their role changed with each country. For example in “Congo and South Africa, the imperialists extracted enormous mineral wealth. However some have argued that the British interest in Kenya was mainly strategic.