Compare and Contrast Egypt and Mesopotamia Essay

385 Words2 Pages
Ancient Egypt differs from Mesopotamia in numerous ways. Egypt had a centralized government, a government-run economy, built pyramids, and wrote hieroglyphics, but Mesopotamia split its land into city-states, had an economy with an independent business class, built ziggurats, and wrote cuneiform. Despite their many differences, the two civilizations had many similarities. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia owned slaves, advanced in mathematics, worshipped more than one god, and developed near large rivers. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia had slaves at the bottom of their social structures. They kept prisoners of war as slaves to work with the peasants. As the two civilizations become more complicated, math was needed to record sales and make calculations for building. With the rising demand for counting, Egypt and Mesopotamia advanced in mathematics such as algebra and geometry. Worship was an important part in both societies, and both Egypt and Mesopotamia had polytheistic religions. Egyptians and Mesopotamians called upon their gods and goddesses for help with their daily lives. Being civilizations with large populations, both Egypt and Mesopotamia established near important rivers to ensure that there was enough water for drinking and irrigation. Egypt had a centralized government, but Mesopotamia divided its land into city-states. A pharaoh with immense power ruled over Egypt, and passed laws, oversaw trade, directed armies, and had many other responsibilities. Mesopotamian city-states each had their own politics and economy, and were ruled by past military leaders. While Egypt’s economy was directed by its government, Mesopotamia’s economy had more of an independent business class. Government control over Egypt’s economy may have been necessary because of the complicated irrigation along the Nile. Egypt built pyramids out of limestone as tombs for its pharaohs, but
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