Compare and Contrast Buchanan and Monderman's Approaches to Social Order in Public Spaces

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Compare and contrast Buchanan and Monderman’s approaches to the production of social order in public spaces Our society is governed by rules, norms (society’s shared set of behavioural expectations and values) and customs that shape behaviour and conduct. Some rules are enforced by law, with penalties for those that do not obey, helping to maintain a stable and predictable social environment known as ‘social order’. Our negotiation of rules and expectations often causes disputes that create a breakdown in social order. Large scale disorder often prompts the government to write new laws or re-think existing social order policies to implement change and remake order. This adapting and renegotiating of rules is continuously required in making and remaking order as society constantly changes and evolves. The government employs advisors with the relevant knowledge and expertise to help initiate change and maintain order, however, as society evolves so does expert opinion. New approaches to the making of social order are now challenging those long established, creating tough choices for the government on how best to create order in contemporary society. This essay will look at the approaches of Buchanan (1963) and Monderman (1982) both of whom have contrasting approaches to creating order through the design of public space. This essay will first look at two different influential theories of social scientists Goffman (1959, 1971, 1972) and Foucault (1972, 1977, 1978) on how social order is made. This will enable us to then link these theories to the approaches of Buchanan and Monderman to provide better understanding on how each design creates order, highlighting contrasts and similarities along the way. Goffman developed the idea that social life is constructed by the everyday encounters and actions that take place between people. Repetitive interactions produce

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