Compare and Contrast Biological and Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia. Essay

847 WordsJan 21, 20154 Pages
One aspect of the biological explanation of schizophrenia suggests that the illness is transmitted from parents to their children via genes. It has been found that a person has a 1% greater chance of developing the schizophrenia if they have a family relative suffering schizophrenia. Gottesman and Shields looked at the medical records of 57 schizophrenic twins. They found that if an MZ twin had schizophrenia their identical twin had a 42% chance of developing the disorder. There was also an increase for DZ twins as they discovered that if one twin had schizophrenia the likelihood of their twin developing the illness was as high as 9%. Kety et al conducted an adoption study to separate the effects of genes and environment. They looked at 5483 Danish children and found that 32% of adoptees separated from a schizophrenic biological parent developed the disorder compared to 18% of the control group. Nevertheless, some argue that neurochemicals cause schizophrenia as Snyder’s Dopamine Hypothesis states that an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine is responsible for the symptoms. However, others suggest that the illness is a result of neuroanatomical factors as Torrey found that the ventricles of sufferers are 15% larger than those of non-sufferers. Ho et al followed their participants over several years and found that the larger the ventricles became the less likely symptoms would ease and become controllable. One of the psychological explanations is the psychodynamic approach in which Freud blames parents for the development of the schizophrenia. A child raised by uncaring parents will employ the defence mechanism regression, psychologically reverting back to the oral stage of development. The theory also indicated that a child with cold parents has a weak Ego in which the Id is in full control causing primary narcissism, when a person is totally focused on
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