The Social Democrats were split into two groups: the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. The Bolshevik’s was more radical and was led by Lenin. The Menshevik’s agreed to wait for the workers to gain power overtime. Lastly the Liberals believed that to develop Russia you had to work with the middle-class. The growth of the reformists groups led to the 1905 revolution as they all wanted change; they wanted the Tsar to agree with them.
In 1898, a new party arose in Russia, the Social Democrats; their aim was to achieve revolution in Russia by following the ideas of Karl Marx. Marx, a German revolutionary, had the idea that “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”; he described this as dialectic. Marx based much of his thinking about history, economics and philosophy; the French revolution had helped the German revolutionary to extend his ideas about the struggles between different classes in society. He came at a very convenient time for Russia as she was just beginning her industrial revolution, this promised revolutionaries to create the industrial conditions that would make a successful revolution possible. The 'great spurt' of the 1890s saw a formation of a new social class; the proletariats.
A change in society occurred in June of 1918 with the introduction of War Communism. War Communism meant that all industry was nationalised, private sales were forbidden as personal profits became illegal, strict working rules were put in place, and a class based rationing system was introduced. War Communism brought about major changes to Russian society but in order to assess how successful it was in its changes, each aspect of its original goals must be looked at. As described by David Christian, one of the two pressures that lead to War communism was ‘the need to fight the civil war’. In this aspect the changes brought about by this policy were successful as it resulted in a Bolshevik victory in the war as it ‘...did the job of supplying towns and armies with just enough food and supplies to keep providing war material and to keep fighting.
(30 marks) June 2009 How far do you agree that the economy of Tsarist Russia was transformed in the years to 1914? (30 marks) OR To what extent were the weaknesses of their opponents responsible for the survival of the Bolshevik government in the years 1917–24? (30 marks) How far do you agree that the collectivisation of agriculture made an essential contribution to Stalin’s transformation of the Russian economy? (30 marks) OR To what extent did Stalin establish a personal dictatorship in the years 1929–39? (30 marks) January 2010 To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform in the years 1906-14?
Both Russia and China's revolution began as a struggle for a change in power. The initial revolution of China in 1911 was for the ousting of the Qing dynasty. Similarly, the 1917 revolution in Russia was instigated by the Bolsheviks revolution against the Tsarist government. The outcomes of Russia and China's revolution were similar as were the goals to establish a new government because both eventually led to the formation of a communist country. However, China's revolution differed because the initial democratic establishment led to opposition from the Communist party while the formation of the U.S.S.R faced minimal opposition.
This investigation will deal with the origins of the Russian revolution in the months of 1917, and address the political, social and economic causes of the Bolshevik revolution. In order to answer this question, this investigation will first provide an overview of the events leading to the Russian revolution in 1917, and then compare various factors such as the Bolsheviks effective leadership with shortage of food and resources. This would be done with the help of scholastic history reference books like Alan Wood’s ‘Origins of Russian Revolution’ and reliable history educational portals such as “1917:Bolsheviks seize power” Seventeen Moments of Soviet History written by Siegelbaum Lewis. Summary of Evidence The Bolshevik party was a minority of the Marxists within the social democratic party, who believed that the proletariat required immediate and professional leadership in its upcoming battle with the capitol elites. The tsarist rule came to an end in February when 240 000 striking workers railed against poor labour condition and food shortage.
Marx argued that social theorists and underprivileged people alike should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about a socio-economic change. Marxists argue that the key factors determining the shape of all social institutions, including the family, is the mode of production. This means who owns and controls society’s productive forces such as machinery and raw materials. Marxists believe that as the mode of production evolves, so does the family. Marx called the earliest, classless society, “primitive communism”.
How far do you agree that communists and Tsars ruled Russia in the same way? The February Revolution of 1917 that brought down the Tsarist regime and led to the ascension of the Provisional Government, had much potential to bring about significant change from the autocratic regime of the Tsars. However, the totalitarian government of the communists seized power in the October Revolution and continued to maintain many aspects of Tsarist rule including the top-down approach to rule, their ideology in policy making and their repressive methods. Although the communists and Tsars appeared to rule differently in their theory, in practice their methods were to a very large extent the same. The top-down approach the rulers of Russia had in the period 1855-1964 were superficially different as the communists claimed to represent the people by giving power to the proletariat where as the Tsars were heavily elitist in their ideology.
Hindenburg’s death in 1929 allowed Hitler full Dictatorship control over Germany. Once in power, Hitler went about turning Germany into a socialist party controlled state where the people were given little freedom. He worked on getting lebensraum, or living space, for the Germans and focused on fixing unemployment through the RAD and German Labor Front. Lenin similarly made laws that secured his influence on the country. His Sovnarkom laws of 1917 were like Hitler’s in that they were decrees on land, peace, work, unemployment, and press.
Old Labour, the traditional socialist representation of the labour party, presented many socialist views, such as cradle-to-grave welfare and social justice. They also opposed such views as a free-market economy, much preferring to regulate and set quotas for it. Old Labour was the standing of the Labour Party since their founding in the early 20th century. Since then, the party has undertaken a radical change, through the conception of Neil Kinnock and the branding of Tony Blair, to become the centre-left party that we’ve come to know as New Labour. New Labour govern with a pragmatic stance, concentrating on making practical decisions that influence the UK, as oppose to Old Labour who were ideological, and looked at the best ways in which to manage society and react to current events.