As stated previously, the Forced Loan existed to fund England’s wars considering that Parliament was reluctant to grant Charles further subsidies. Foreign policy had been dreadful for England since Charles had become King due to large scale operations such as the Cadiz Expedition failing miserably. As such, it was becoming increasingly more expensive to fund. Due to this Charles demanded more
Maximillien Robespierre was a man with drastic reformatory aspirations. He considered the general will to be a necessity and resorted to the Terror because he wished to create a temporary dictatorship in order to save the Republic. He praised the revolution and disguised the gruesomeness of his actions and intentions by reasoning that the Terror was virtuous since it defended the Republic. The Jacobins were liberal radicalists who wished for a central government, control over the economy, and universal suffrage. With the replacement of the Girondins faction in 1793, the Jacobins had complete control of the National Convention, and France as a nation.
Among the 20th century statesmen, Ho Chi Minh was one of the most influential political leaders who pursed his goal of Vietnamese independence. Ho Chi Minh’s remarkable ability in coupling communism with nationalism demonstrated to the world what a successful leader he was. The struggle against the French, the United States and the Saigon government conveyed that he was the architect behind the success. He was described as 'Uncle Ho,' an epithet bestowed upon him. On the other hand, people believed that behind the fatherly smile was a diabolical mind that was deceiving the entire world, leading them to believe that he had the country’s best interest in mind.
In France, the political problems started off with Louis XIV using up the treasury to build the royal palace of Versailles. Louis had absolute power and he didn’t have to ask the parlements for money, which depleted the royal treasury. The Seven Years War was also a major contributor to the royal debt. War was very expensive and Louis spent a ridiculous amount of money on the war to ensure France’s victory. The French’s hatred for the English lead them to help the Americans break free from British rule.
It was necessary for Henry to continue the war as it would have been disastrous to give up on the fight for French land, but war was expensive and it affected the income of many noble families. This caused distress at the home front which was not wholly Henry’s fault. The French were growing in military strength by 1931. With greatly superior resources in men and money, it is easy to conceive how the French managed to reverse the military situation during Henry’s reign. It was exceedingly difficult for Henry to live up to the immensely high standard of success
(Matteo needed to include that urban workers were also heavily taxed; taxes were used to help finance the modernisation of Russia’s backward industry). A short-term reason why there was revolution in 1905 was the costly Russo-Japanese War. Because of the conflict, which Russia was losing, there was less coal to use as heating and less food to eat. This caused general resentment amongst the poor people of Russia who wanted an end to the war. There were countless protests against the war with Japan and news of defeat after defeat only angered the Russian people more as they wanted a change in government.
By 1787, the French government was bankrupt. It was 4000 million Livres in debt. France had spent a lot of money fighting costly wars, but had nothing to show for it. Many accused the royals, especially the Queen, for spending too much on luxuries. Some said that the tax system was corrupt, and some tax collectors did not hand in all their tax to the government.
Trade was also disrupted which caused a level of instability in the economy. Finally, war and taxes price increased. Larger, healthier and better trained armies were needed. Most governments started to rely on paid mercenaries to do their fighting for them. The problem with mercenaries is that they were expensive to obtain and even more expensive to retain.
This was a direct cause of the economic crises that faced the French Government. This was partly a result of the country's involvement in the American war of independence. The Nobility was called upon to help ease France's economic crisis, but they declined to help out because they were afraid of losing their economic privileges such as high roles in society, not having to serve the king in war as well as not having to pay taxes. The cost of affording a respectable or even a sustained lifestyle had increased rapidly with the rise in bread prices and basic necessities. On top of which the working class was expected to pay heavy taxes to finance the governments running.
In 1919, he declared ‘ we are the heretics (non –believers) of all churches’ . He soon realised he had to foster good relations with the Church simply because, regardless of his dictatorship the Roman Catholic Church was such a powerful institution in Italy. Mussolini could not afford to anger the Church. Once leader, Mussolini had to decide whether to take on the power of the Church or to work with it. He chose the latter.