Aristotle, who is traditionally referred to as the father of Political Science, considered Political Science as the master of all sciences or the supreme science. Similarly, Sidgwik and Bryce consider Political Science as a science. But certain other persons like Maitland deny that Political Science is not a science. What is a Science? Before one examines the claim of political science to be called as a science, one ought to know what is the meaning of science.
Beard supports his thesis by giving evidence of the economic interests of elite who wrote the Constitution, and then showing how the structure of the government benefits these specific interests. d. Commager iv. Commager supports his thesis by naming the two problems that the Constitution worked to fix, the problem of federalism and how to use laws to keep power of different branches of government in check. III. Types of evidence used e. Beard v. Newspapers and pamphlets from the time period (The Federalist) vi.
Book Review of “Mind: A Brief Introduction” by John R. Seale, Oxford (2004) “All of the most famous and influential theories are false.” From the very first page, this bold and no doubt provocative statement of intent by Searle, makes no apologies for its effect. A point, it appears, needs to be proved and in “Mind: A Brief Introduction” John Searle is out to do just that and “try to rescue the truth from the overwhelming urge to falsehood”. Referring to the ever contentious issue surrounding the philosophy of mind, Searle directs the majority of his effort towards the “mind-body problem”, the relationship between the physical and biological experiences and the mental experiences in our so called “mind”. His main aims are to introduce readers to the main theories of what the mind is, why they’re all simply wrong and to present his view on the matter. Previous and present literature regarding the mind is vast and Searle acknowledges this, so the task of effectively bringing every theory, which he regards as being based on “false assumptions”, into disrepute, makes this particular book stand out.
First of all we have to get an idea on what is political science. Many scholars have distinguished their ideas on political science as, · It’s the study of the state · It’s the study of the government · It’s the study of the power · It’s the study of human behavior · It’s the study of public administration and policy making · It’s the study of conflict resolution and peace building According to “Bluntchli” Political science is the science of the state. According to “Aristotle” Political science is the study of power. He said that there’s an indispensable bond between human beings and power. According to his idea there are three main characteristics that people have since their birth.
Why do we study Public Policy? Why should political scientists devote greater attention to the study of public policy? First of all, public policy can be studied for purely scientific reasons: understanding the causes and consequences of policy decisions improves our knowledge of society. Public Policy can be views as a dependent variable, and we can ask what socioeconomic forces and political system characteristics operate to shape the content of policy. Alternatively, public policy can be viewed as an independent variable, and we can ask what impact public policy has on society and its political system.
The true key to knowledge There is a well known and frequently used ancient Persian proverb that states that ‘doubt is the key to knowledge’. We can already say that doubt has indeed played a big role in the development of the sciences because after all, has doubting religious beliefs not led to the creation of the scientific way of reasoning itself? We can, however, distinguish two types of sciences here: social sciences, like history and beta sciences, like maths. Both of these so called ‘areas of knowledge’ require different kinds of deductive reasoning to come to conclusions which can be turned into knowledge. Do they have doubt as the key to knowledge in common though?
Science as defined above is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. Fields of science therefore are commonly classified along two major lines: - Natural science, the study of natural world and social sciences, the systematic study of human behaviour and society. According to Giddens (2006:4), “sociology is the systematic study of human social life, groups and societies.” It is a dazzling and compelling enterprise as its subject matter is our own behaviour as social beings. Sociology deals with the ways that social structure and culture are related. Social structure is defined by a variety of ideas.
Science is the use of systematic methods of research and investigation and the logical analysis of arguments in order to develop an understanding of a particular subject matter (Giddens, 1986). By using this definition of a science, many sociologists believe that sociology resembles a science in its approaches and procedures. It is always considered a science, since it fulfils the main components of a science. It is theoretical. Being theoretical means that the data obtained by the research are used to formulate theories which consists of coherent and logically related principles which are used to explain various social phenomena such as issues affecting the public.
They should be detached observers, suspicious of common sense and able to reject with evidence. Evidence and hypothesis is the key to positivism. They believe that scientific knowledge is the only valid form of knowledge; science makes anything open for debate (Gilbert 117). This is why the positivism “should” be used. Although the scientific method can be assessed in sociological research, the interpretivistic approach in sociology contradicts their beliefs.
Political Science –Science or Arts? Lets us begin by understanding what exactly Political Science is. Commonly the subject is understood as being synonymous with the government, state and even politics in general. Various political scientists and theorist have defined the doctrine in various ways. In short, it can be said that, Political Science is a method of better understanding the various norms of governments and the political scenario worldwide.