One such confrontation was the thirty-six-year civil war waged from 1960 to 1996 in the small Central American country of Guatemala. The many parties involved in the war would state different reasons for it. A careful scrutiny of the issue, however, reveals that the causes of the Guatemalan Civil War were racism towards and oppression of the native Mayan citizens, disputes regarding the use and ownership of land, and a desire for economic and political power. Mayans have been oppressed and systematically eradicated since Spain conquered Guatemala in 1520 (“Guatemala: A Brief History”). Although cruelty by the Spaniards ceased with Guatemala’s liberation in 1821, new groups arose to continue the oppression.
They started a colony, called Darien. The captain and Balboa, started fighting, because, they both wanted to be in charge. The captain lost, and went back to Spain, and Balboa became governor of Darien. Then, Balboa set out to explore the surrounding country, hoping to find gold. Since he was very nice, he won him the friendship of the Indians.
1. Fernando Cortes was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire. In his First Letter to King Charles I of Spain dating to July 10, 1519, Fernando Cortes provided a detailed account of his activities in Mexico. He described the country as rich in resources and its native people as savage barbarians who sacrifice their own persons for their idols. Cortes wrote that in the short time they explored the lands, the expedition has discovered that everything that King Solomon brought for the Temple existed in this country.
Spanish missionaries and conquistadors sought to convert the people of the New World and establish dominance overseas. To do this, they needed the labor of African slaves, leading to another mass migration. This migration helped explode the population of the New World since so many people came to the Americas with the promise of cheap land and easy living. Migration was a heavy factor in the changes to the Native American population for this migration. The people of the Old World brought their diseases with them, which took advantage of the Native Americans inexistent antibodies toward illnesses like smallpox- which brought about massive and catastrophic population decreases for the Native Americans, about 80-90%.
Comparative Essay of Spain and Portugal Over the course of world history there are several major events, one of these being the meeting of the new and old world. From the period of 1500-1700 both Spain and Portugal treated the natives of their respective areas very similarly; however, the ways each obtained their wealth in America was different. When Spain and Portugal arrived in the Americas, the natives of each area were treated the same, with cruelty and violence. Both Spain and Portugal required large work forces, Spain to mine gold and silver and Portugal to cultivate sugarcane. The immediate solution to this problem was the enslavement of the native people through force.
Then in 1502 Christopher Columbus became the first European to visit the fine country of Nicaragua. That was that for a while until the beginning of the 1520s when the Spanish took more interest in settling the land. The indigenous people kept fighting the Spanish off until the Spanish finally conquered them in 1552. Which would mean they would be ruled by Spain until Nicaragua declared independence
The idea of European superiority and dominance drove the social structure of the "new world", (consisting mainly of North and Latin Americas and the Caribbean). Because of this dominant racial ideology, the native peoples of both regions were often subjects of discrimination and oppression. The extent of their mistreatment differed, as in North America they were simply pushed aside or confined to a certain area to live, while in the Caribbean and Latin America they were forced into servitude and labor. The dominant racial ideology of Europeans also fueled the slave trade that was prominent in the time period of 1500-1830, which involved shipping African slaves to the the Americas to increase the productivity of the colonies. In both areas, slaves were basically property, bought, sold, and traded to do specific and often labor intensive tasks.
Name Date CHAPTER 4 Summary CHAPTERS IN BRIEF The Atlantic World, 1492–1800 CHAPTER OVERVIEW Starting in 1492, the Spanish built a large empire in the Americas, but the native peoples suffered. In North America, the Dutch, French, and English fought for control. England ﬁnally won. The labor of enslaved persons brought from Africa supported the American colonies. The contact between the Old World and the New produced an exchange of new ideas.
In 1898 the Spanish- American war began when America decided to liberate the Spanish colonies Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. The US won and gained control of the colonies, although instead of liberating the colonies they had fought to free and continue the fight against imperialism they became what they had been telling the world that they resented, an empire. This was the first step the US took towards becoming the world’s toughest police officer. After the First World War was won, President Wilson proposed 14 points at the meeting in Versailles that the rest of the world should follow to gain stability and peace in the world. This was the second step.
BREAKING THE SPANISH MONOPOLY IN THE CARIBBEAN SPAIN’S CLAIM TO CONTROL THE CARIBBEAN At the beginning of the 16th Century, Spain and Portugal led Europe in exploration. With regard to the Caribbean, after the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, Spain adopted a policy of mare clausum (sea closed to others). All foreign ships were banned from the entire Caribbean and from trade with the Spanish colonies. The Spanish had not settled in nearly all the Lesser Antilles, the Bahamas and the Guianas, and in these areas the Spanish monopoly began to be challenged. NATIONALISM AND RELIGION IN EUROPE Before 1517, all of Europe acknowledged the authority of the Pope, and allowed the Papacy to act as an international court.