There are two parts to this ligament; superior and inferior. Superior acromioclavicular ligament this ligament is a quadrilateral band, covering the superior part of the articulation, and extending between the upper part of the lateral end of the clavicle and the adjoining part of the upper surface of the acromion. Inferior Acromioclavicular Ligament This ligament is somewhat thinner than the preceding, it covers the under part of the articulation, and is attached to the adjoining surfaces of the two bones. The coracoacromial ligament runs from the coracoid process and the acromion. The coracoacromial ligament is a strong triangular band, extending between the coracoid process and the acromion.
It protects and maintains vital structures in their proper position, provides stability for the body, and bodys shape. Serves as resorvoir for ions such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium and it houses the hematopoietic connective tissue in which blood cells are formed. Two functional parts. Axial- is composed of the bones of the skull thorax and vertebral column and roms the axis of the body. Appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower extremities, including shoulder and the hip.
Open reduction and internal fixation is the golden surgical technique for transverse patella fractures. By using tension band wiring, it produces a compression force to the fracture site. The healing process of fracture relies on both the fixation techniques and implants used. Although this practice has been developed for more than 50 years, post-operative complications still exist in
A thin edge of the scapula closer to the vertebral column is called the medial border. The hick edge closer to the arm is called the lateral border. The medial and lateral borders join at the inferior angle. The superior edge of the scapula called the superior border, joins the medial border at the superior angle. The proximal end of the humerus feature a rounded head that articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint.
The articular capsule has two layers: -Fibrous capsule: the outer layer - Synovial membrane: the inner layer that secretes synovial fluid which lubricates to reduce friction. The surface of the knee joint, the patella lies within the joint capsule and has an important function which is to reduce friction during extension and to protect the knee joint. The muscles that facilitate the movement of the synovial joints are skeletal muscles. The muscles that move the knee joint are called quadriceps and hamstring. When the agonist which is the contracting muscle which, in this case is the quadriceps, it allows flexion of the knee joint while the antagonist which will be the hamstring, is the relaxed
The thalamus has a posterior projection, the pulvinar that has lateral and medial geniculate bodies. Blood supply to the thalamus. • Posteromedial central arteries (Thalamoperforating arteries). • Posterolateral central arteries (Ganglionic/ Thalamogeniculate arteries) • Anterior choroidal • Posterior choroidal Venous drainage is via the deep system via the thalamostriate and basal veins. The medial and lateral nuclear groups are themselves subdivided as shown in the diagram below.
The exposed surface of the trabuculae is where the canaliculi ends and where nutrients and waste are diffused. 2. In general compare and contrast the three functional classifications of joints according to movement. What are two characteristics that make synovial joints unique and different from other joints? Which joint is stronger-the shoulder or hip joint and why is it?
Capsular ligaments are a part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints. They act up as mechanical reinforcements, creating stability when the ligaments join together. Articular cartilage- Articular cartilage is a white smooth tissue that covers the ends of bones in the joints. It enables bones of a joint to easily glide over one another, establishing easy movement. Joints between the bones, knee, elbow, and rib cage are some areas in the body where these cartilages can be found.
The cerebrum is composed of two symmetrical hemispheres which are separated by a deep midline sagittal fissure which is deemed the longitudinal fissure, which contains a fold of dura matter, the flax cerebri. In the depths of this longitudinal fissure is a great commisure, the corpus callosum which connects the two hemispheres. The hemispheres are separated from the cerebellum by a fold of dura matter termed the tentorium cerebelli. The hemispheres have both deep fissures or sulci and raised areas or a gyrus, which allow for further division of the cortex. The main sulcus is the central sulcus, which indents the superior-medial surface of each hemisphere.
174 – a) shaft of the bone, b) end of the bone, c) between the shaft and end of the bone 7. Describe the location, composition, and function of the epiphyseal plate, articular cartilage, and periosteum. Ans: pg. 174 – epiphyseal plate: located in the metaphysis, composed of hyaline cartilage, is the growth plate; articular cartilage: covers the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation with another bone, composed of hyaline cartilage, reduces fiction and absorbs shock at freely movable joints; periosteum: surrounds the bone surface wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage, is a sheath of dense irregular connective tissue containing osteoblasts, functions to protect the bone, assists in fracture repair, nourishes bone tissue, and serve as an attachment point for ligaments and tendons 8. Why is osseous tissue considered a connective tissue?