Codon Chart Essay

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What is a codon chart? Codon charts gives the genetic code for each amino acid at translation of mRNA into protein, as well as the stop and start codons. There are 64 possible combinations composed of three nucleotide bases that specify amino acids during protein assembling. The three nucleotide are tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA. mRNA which is the messenger RNA, is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the the ribosomes. Here, the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein. In mRNA as in DNA, genetic information is encoded in the sequence of four nucleotides arranged into codons of three bases each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons that terminate protein synthesis. This process requires two other types of RNA: tRNA mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, while rRNA is the central component of the ribosome's protein manufacturing machinery. rRNA the Ribosomal rRNA, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The function of the rRNA is to provide a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and to interact with the tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity. tRNA the Transfer RNA. tRNA is a small RNA chain that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal during translation. It has a 3’ terminal site for amino acid attachment. This covalent linkage is catalyzed by an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. It also contains a three base region called the anti-codon that can base pair to the corresponding three base codon region on mRNA. Each type of tRNA molecule can be attached to only one type of amino acid, but because the genetic code contains multiple

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