Classical Vs Positivist

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Classical School vs. Positivist School Edwin De Leon Assignment 1.1 Classical School vs. Positivist School The primary ideological differences between the Classical and Positivist School theories basically argue that deviance and abnormal behavior comes from free will rather the other argues that crime is determined. The Classical School assumes that everyone is a rational actor and acts upon free will. The Positivist School assumes that criminals are determined to be criminals based on factors outside their control. According to Italian philosopher, Cesar Beccaria who wrote On Crimes And Punishment, humans were rational actors and exhibited free will. Beccaria also says that people chose to commit crimes for greed and personal need. Also he concluded that punishment is necessary and that the punishment should be in proportion to the crime. Origins of different sentencing schemes in the United States are traced to Beccaria. Beccaria says that punishments should be swift, certain, and just. The Positivist School theory explains crime in the sense that people are destined to be criminals based on factors outside their control. It says that juvenile delinquency is a selective phenomenon, and that it does not occur spontaneously. Cesare Lombroso, an Italian medical doctor who published Criminal Man, studied the physical sizes of the heads of criminals. Lombroso concluded that persons born with larger heads were likely to engage in the life of criminality. Lombroso also says that criminals were products of heridty, and that physical appearance is a telling factor whether certain people would be predisposed to criminality. For example, height, weight, hair and eye color, jaw sizes and angles and ear lobes, finger lengths, and hand sizes are all determining factors to criminality. Lombroso concluded that many physiological characteristics shared by criminals were
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