Classical V Neoclassical Theory

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The classical theory is a product of the Enlightenment period which is a period of history spanning roughly from 1517 to 1789. The Enlightenment period, or Age of Reason period, was charachterized by a direct intellectual challenge to the theological worldview. This challenge to the theological view was brought about by Enlightenment thinkers who promoted a more scientific view. Most Enlightenment thinkers drew many of their ideas from the Greek or Classical philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. These classical thinkers derove their reasonning from personnal observations. These reasonings for enlightenment thinkers refer to the rationalle of people such as Thomans Hobbs, John Locke Voltaire, Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton among others. This rationalism is based on deductive logic. Deductive logic involves reasoning from the general to particular and applying theory to a particular case. The scientists create a a theory and then make some observations that either refute or support the theory. Enlightenment thinkers believe humans can understand the world better through science due to the human capacity of observation and reasonning. They also believed if the world could be understood it could also be changed. These thinkers believed that not to be divinely ordained or determined. They instead believe people are freewilled and responsible for their own actions. Human behavior was considered to be motivated by a hedonistic rationalle, where people weighed the potential pleasure of an act against the possible pain or punishment. The classical or enlightened thinkers were concerned with protecting the rights of the people from the corruption and excess of the current legal institutions. The barbarous punishments were not the onlyproblems. At the time crime was very poorly defined and due process was either absent or ignored.

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