Classical Theory of Criminology

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Introduction to Criminology Feb 11 Labeling perspectives * Secondary deviation is the principal focus of labeling perspectives. * Secondary deviation is a natural offshoot of primary deviation i.e. shoplifting; it brings focus to what takes place after the police is called. * Police intervention may cause the individual to be labeled as a deviant or a young offender * The individual may have to fall into the context of the label/ new status * Said to be the most applicable among young people, who may employ various types of neutralization technique or start to justify what they do. * Critics note that not every young person acts the same. In reverse effect some may shy away from the new status/label Cultural criminology: phenomenological in nature because of its emphasis on social phenomenon. It is not based on traditional approach; it explores the multiplicity of factors that are interactive with deviant behavior. Wants to articulate. Cultural criminology considers crime as a matter of social construction that a reality itself. Focuses on pleasures, excitement and opportunity of ‘physical reward’ notable in certain modes of criminality. Emotions may involve the high gained in trespassing certain boundaries, the fun and the excitement. Labeling perspectives have impacted on policy development, like diversion programs to deal with deviants including pre court arrangement, dealing with ‘crime’ outside of court to minimize the prospect of labeling on that individual and so as to inspire them to deviate from committing the crime. Protecting young people from stigma and lifetime penalty through the YCJA of 2003 (YOA 1984) There is also privacy of youth records to shield them from the shame of their past mistakes (kept in repository by the RCMP) the exception to this situation I when the young offender is moved to an adult court or is deemed a great
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