This then lead for official statistics and the law enforcement to show a bias towards working class boys. This research shows how deviance only exists because people have decided to attach a label, thus the labelling theory is useful in explain how a deviant and criminal behaviour is classed as this. However, it fails to explain why some people certain crime and deviance in the first place before they are labelled. Also, as said in Item a ‘’deviant individuals are labelled when their actions are discovered and provoke reactions from society. However, this reaction will take differing forms, depending on how the nature of the action is perceived.’’ But as well as this, labelling theorists look at the effects and reaction it causes the individual to take.
It does however explain why some people or actions are described as deviant, and can help in understanding crime and deviance. According to item A labelling has changed the theoretical base for the study of criminals. Becker emphasises the significance of crime being a social construct; an action only becomes criminal or deviant once society has labelled it so, and that crime can be argued to be a social construction. He introduced the concept of a master label, referring to the label which a person is given which overrides all other labels. When a person is labelled as negatively, society tends to tend them as such, and this master label often becomes internalised, and then a self-fulfilling prophecy occurs.
Deviance, on the other hand, is behaviour which moves away from conventional norms and values such as burping and farting in public. If what is considered to be crime and deviance changes, it can’t be inherently wrong but must be culturally specific. Emile Durkheim speaks of crime as being functional to society. According to item A, ‘the publicity given to crime highlights the boundaries of acceptable behaviour.' Durkheim expands on this saying we are aware of these boundaries following social reactions to deviance.
The fact that some crimes are committed by individuals who are not yet mature enough to vote, drive, or even drink should not be ignored. Punishment for an adult can be unfair when applied to a child in some cases, especially when they don’t understand the consequences of their actions. When it comes to judgment of these crimes it should vary on a case to case basis. It should be taken into account whether the defendant’s crime was malicious, accidental or they could not understand the magnitude of their actions. Juvenile offenders should be tried and punished as adults do to the nature of the crime.
When we break or deviate from any rule, no matter how minor it is, then we are committing acts of criminal behavior. The premise behind these social control theories is to explain what keeps a person from committing criminal or delinquent behavior (Williams & McShane, 2010). This theory finds strength in the idea that family structure has the most influence in predicting
• It creates two new schemes for dealing with youth crime: child safety orders, which apply to children under the age of 10, and parenting orders, which are made against the parents of a child who has been given an anti-social behaviour order. • Creates sex offender orders, which bar offenders from activities and areas frequented by children. • Abolishes the death penalty for treason or piracy. • Introduces separate offences for crimes that were aggravated by the victim's race or presumed race. • Obliges local authorities, the police and other local bodies to draw up a crime and disorder strategy covering their area.
‘Outline and explain ways in which data about crime is collected’ Crime can be defined as deviant activities that break the law in any particular society. Finding out how much crime takes place isn’t easy, and attempts to measure crime can prove misleading. This doesn’t mean that crime statistics aren’t affective, but it does mean that no single measure can be fully relied upon. Many sociologists see crime statistics as a social construction, as collecting crime data is a result of the cultural expectations of society, and by understanding who commits crime and what sorts of crimes are committed, we can get a clearer picture of why people commit crime in the first place. Different sociologists have presented different theories and concepts to explain what drives a person to commit a crime, and research and statistics give us an idea of the type of crimes committed and the places that they’re most likely to occur.
Assuming that young, petty lawbreakers may be deterred from braking laws, simply by introducing the possibility of a public flogging, has some flaws to it. Jacoby neglected to bring up, what I would call the perfect argument to this topic. People who already intentionally commit crimes in today’s American society are fully aware of the possible repercussions for their actions. Despite this knowledge they continue to commit crimes that could land them in jail. I could argue that even more crime could result in effect to fewer prisonable offences and more humane forms of corporal punishment.
Is concern over youth crime a moral panic? Answer with reference to recent policy changes. The concept of societal concern over ‘youth crime’ is nothing new, from Victorian ‘street urchins’ to the modern day ‘yob’. Crime however comes in various forms from extreme acts of murder to minor vandalism or drug use, given how varied crime can be it would appear also that some crime is given more focus than others. This was first brought attention to by Stanley Cohen’s book ‘Folk Devils and Moral Panics’ (1972), he pointed out that some crime is given more attention and exaggerated so the societal response is likewise.
I measure the social capital I have in terms of the beneficial friendships I have, and by this definition my social capital is substantial. 2. Do you believe there is a latent trait that makes a person crime prone, or is crime a function of environment and socialization? A person with a latent trait is more apt to get involved in crime. This is because their brain does not translate right from wrong, and when put into an environmental socialization network they are easy to manipulate and will do almost anything to fit in with the people they hang around with.