It also talks about how the different community organization factors that affect children within the community. It says that one of the most important factors is the ability of the community to supervise and control the teenage peer groups. Sampson believes that origins of many gangs are the failure of supervision of these teenage playgroups. In section III Sampson talks about the way the community is organized culturally and how that affects the normal behavior of the member of the community and how this relates to violence. In this section he also talks about the community’s social isolation and how that is related to crime in the community.
Stephen Greene CJC 112-001 Criminology Social Labeling Theory Labeling theory is a pretty simple theory that is based on social deviations which result in the labeling of the outsider. It is deviance created by one’s own society. Social groups create deviance through the establishment of social rules, the breaking of these rules results in the perpetrator being labeled as a deviant (Fitch). Because of the objectivity involved it is needless to say that these labels are not always accurately applied to people. Once a label is given to an individual they become part of all the generalizations that go with that label (Siegel).
Persistently irresponsible, they are impulsive violators of what are considered social norms. They disregard the feelings of others, while feeling no guilt or remorse for actions they have done (Cavadino, 1998). Because psychopathy and sociopathy are often confused, it is important to differentiate between the two types of personality disorders. What makes a sociopath separate from the psychopath is “sociopathy is not a formal psychiatric condition. It refers to patterns of attitudes that are considered to be antisocial and criminal by society at large, but are seen as normal or necessary by the subculture or social environment in which they developed” (Babiak & Hare, 2007, p. 26).
Like every other type of crime, it has negative effects on society. Most common consequences are fear among the community and harming the youths’ way of life. Who is considered as a Juvenile Delinquent? A juvenile delinquent is a person who is normally below the age of 18 and commits an action that would be charged as a criminal act if he were an adult. Juvenile delinquents sometimes suffer from conditions such as mental disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or bipolar disorder.
These theories are different in determining factors that cause criminal behavior. The theories have played a role in different policies we have in place in the criminal justice system. I will explain the three theories of social structure before going into how they play a role in pelican bay state prison; war zone. Social disorganization theory which depicts social change, social conflict, and lack of social consensus as the root causes of crime and deviance (Schmalleger, 2012). This theory focuses on the lack of social control, gang activity, disadvantaged neighborhoods and the many conflicting social values as factors that cause people to commit crime.
Three major sources of strain: the failure to achieve positively valued goals, the loss of positively valued stimuli, and the presentation of negative stimuli. The first type of strain includes three subtypes: the failure to achieve ideal goals, the failure to achieve all expectations, and the failure to be treated in a just fair manner. agressvive demands of sexual or physical abuse “The delinquent accepts society’s norms that place an importance on the ownership of certain things, but inequalities, such as poverty, prevent their attainment,” therefore turning to life of crime. social disorganization promote crime and include disrupted, dysfunctional and impaired households; ethnic and racial, ; and the development of "deviant" subcultures, even though they specified that such subcultures are not entirely distinct from the conventional-dominant culture but rather deviant in the sense of fostering at least the tolerance of certain behaviors. frustrations or the lack of access to legitimate opportunities happen to create forms of social disorganization.
Those who experience particularly hostile abuse often see aggression as the way to solve problems and adopt values and attitudes that support the use of violence. Once leaving home many youth must also resort to crime as a means of survival, or to help cope with life on the streets. The problem of youth homelessness has reached crisis proportions in Canada but the plight of street kids remains largely misunderstood. Across the country, in
Social -control theory argues that deviance is largely a matter of failed social controls. Merton believes that the strain between the norms that define socially appropriate goals and the norms that specify socially appropriate means for attaining these goals creates an atmosphere in which deviance will appear. Travis Hirschi says that persons with a weakened bond to their social group are likely to become deviant. Differential association and cultural transmission theories propose that deviance is a natural outgrowth of a person's contacts during socialization and can be a part of a subculture that can be transmitted indefinitely. Conflict theory traces the origin of criminal behavior to class conflict between the powerful and the weak and sees criminals as reasonable individuals forced by circumstance to break laws in order to regain some of what has been taken from them or denied to them by an exploitative system.
Analyse the potential effects of barriers to equality and inclusion in own area of responsibility. The potential barriers that exist - critical reflection the cycle of oppression learned helplessness dis empowerment, diminished life chance social exclusion being marginalised poor interpersonal interactions and communication risk assessments and case for action new organisational structures and systems lack of group cohesiveness differing personalities the media; prejudice implication of non compliance e.g. financial, legal, moral, health LEARNED HELPLESSNESS Definition: a condition in which one becomes unable to help oneself due to previous failed attempts at controlling ones life; also a condition in which a person establishes and maintains contact with another by adopting a helpless, powerless stance. e.g. learned helplessness is controlled behaviour in which an
On the other hand, it is dysfunctional to the society as it erodes moral values and breaks connecting social norms. It destroys and destabilizes the society as it creates conflicts that may extend to both communities of the assailant and defendant. Assault impacts negatively on social cohesion and interpersonal relationships (Nisbet, 1974). In conclusion, assault is a dreadful social deviance whose dysfunctional features of society far outweigh the functional. Therefore, in order to create a stable and cohesive society, the deviance needs to be controlled or eliminated by postulating and devising tough consequences for