Murderers James Hamm and David Mumbaugh depicts different ways of paying their debt. Jane Bernstein’s view of understanding appropriate punishment for murder is altered when she encounters the different ways paying a debt and the influence of the Victim’s Bill of Rights. She suggests that there’s validation in allowing victims to play a role in the decision of a criminal’s release, yet they should not confer the power to determine one’s destiny. All too often, individuals who after being convicted of their crimes, served their sentences and are due for release, but are then subjected to the wrath of their victims and/or their relatives. At times, there are even attempts through the legal system to have their sentences reduced and released on “good behavior”.
Why is it important to provide support for victims of crime? “Victim”, a person who has endured harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or considerable harm of their, basic right as a result of acts or omissions that are in breach of criminal laws operative within Member States, including those laws proscribing criminal abuse of power. Whether you have experienced the theft or damage of your property, suffered a violent attack, had someone close to you hurt or killed, or witnessed some other crime or incident, the impact can produce a variety of emotions and reactions in you and those close to you. In our day and age we are lucky enough to have organisation that help victims overcome their troubles. These support services are extremely important to victims of crime, they enable victims to overcome the experience and get back on their feet and back to their every day lives.
The final two restitutions substitute service in place for financial payment. They both require the perpetrator to perform a specific number of hours in order to make cash payments. Macro/Micro Level Effects A macro level effect refers to a change in some group or organizational characteristics. A micro level effect is any changes in a person, such as being more satisfied with the cj system if a person received compensation. Victim compensation programs ideally are suppose to produce an increase rate of violent crimes known to the police.
Further, because most hate-crime legislation puts added effort into prosecuting crimes against certain individuals or groups, what about the same crimes committed against someone who doesn't fit into one of those groups? Will the crime be prosecuted to the same extent? If not, you're making things worse for the majority, who are likely to feel underprotected. If the problem is that too many people (of any group) are being mugged, or assaulted, or their belongings vandalized, you should put more effort into prosecuting muggings, assaults, or vandalism. Not to protect any one group, but to protect all
Victimology: A Study of Crime Victims 1 Victimology is an important element in the process of learning about crime victims, the needs of the victims, and even about the perpetrator of the crime. It identifies the victims, reveals their physical and mental state before and after the crime, their social interactions, and ideas as to why they were a victim. Victimology does not give the reasons why a particular person is chosen by an offender, however it will give general overview of victim selection (Petherick, “Victimology” 2010) The definitions of victimology vary in the use of words within the definition, such as victim, crime victim or behavior of crime victim. Victimology as an academic term containing two elements; the Latin word “victima” which translate into victim and the Greek word “logos” which means a system of knowledge (Dussich “Victimology ‘Past, Present and Future’”2000). In it’s simplest definition, victimology is the study of the victim or victims of a particular offender (Wallace & Roberson 2011: 3).
Introduction Secondary victimisation is where the victims of crime are treated with disrespect and have had their basic human rights ignored. In certain instances, this secondary victimisation can be far more traumatic to the victim than the initial crime. Not only can the secondary victimisation be due to the treatment by criminal justice officials, but also by the victim’s family, friends or community. Secondary victimisation in the court process Secondary victimisation refers to behaviours and attitudes of social service providers that are "victim-blaming" and insensitive, and which traumatise victims of violence who are being served by these agencies. A victim of rape (primary victimisation), for example, may be subjected to victim blaming and ostracism as the result of the attack; those who become disabled (primary victimisation) may be subjected to non-accommodation, medicalization, and segregation; and those who develop mental disorder (primary victimisation) may be subject to institutionalisation, that in each case may be far more victimising to these individuals and limiting of their life opportunity than the primary victimising stigmatic condition itself, and are thus called secondary victimisation.
Juvenile Justice Paper 1 10/17/12 Society deems those who commit crimes as undesirable. Whether it’s a white–collar crime such as fraud, or a violent homicide, if convicted, they’ll pay a fine, get treatment, or be removed from the rest of society to pay their debt. Crimes are committed by people of all ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and religions. Age plays a very crucial role in how the rest of the procedures play out. Sure a middle-aged man convicted of murder will be tried as an adult, but there are those who commit the same crime that are still juveniles.
Introduction Although it is said that a defendant receives years of sentence or prison based on how severe the damage the defendant created, it often depends on the characteristics and the socioeconomic aspects of the person. A defendant’s character and the attractiveness of victim can greatly affect how a jury perceives guilt or innocence. The personal characteristics and socio-economic status plays an essential role for the defendant on the assessment of guilt by the jury members. It has become a major interest for the psychologists and the forensic psychologist to study the effect of different variables or factors on jury decisions. The psychologists and the forensic psychologist have investigated the influence of personal
One of these theories is the Choice Theory. According to the text book, Criminal Justice in Action, Choice Theory is when criminals weigh the benefits of the crime they want to commit to the tragic costs. If in the end the if the criminals benefits over weigh the costs he or she is more likely to commit the crime (pg.31). Most crimes are committed because of the rewards that come along with it. The rewards can involve money or even a sense of gratification according to sociologist Jack Katz in the text book Criminal Justice in action when said “’rewards’ of crime may be sensual as well as financial.
Victims can also play an indirect role in a criminal incident, such as when a woman adopts a lifestyle that continually brings her into high-crime areas (Siegel 2011). The discovery that victims play an important role in the crime process has prompted the scientific study of victims, or victimology. Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims refer to themselves as victimologists(Siegel 2011). Victimization’s Toll on Society The costs of victimization can include such things as damaged property, pain and suffering to victims, and the involvement of the police and other agencies of the justice system. The pain and suffering inflicted on an individual can result in the need for medical care, the loss of wages from not being able to go to work, and reduced quality of life from debilitating injuries and /or fear of being victimized again, which can result in not being able to go to work, long term medical care, and counseling.