Police Organizational Theories The major organizational theories associated with policing would be: the contingency theory, the institutional theory, and the resource dependency theory. Each theory has certain merits and downfalls, and determining which is best is dependent upon each individual jurisdiction. The Institutional theory is best described as Community Oriented Policing, or COP as it is more commonly known. (Crank, 2003) COP is a theory of policing where the main idea is that police agencies operate in relation to their community’s social and political environments. Essentially, the police will base their use of assets in a manner to reduce crime by building ties within the community and having a presence in neighborhoods.
Civil Policing: It refers to the role of the police in the enforcement of criminal law; like maintenance of law and order, protecting and safeguarding the lives and properties of citizens. This is the most familiar police work and general public thinks, the police force exists to fight crime. 2. Political Policing: If policing extends beyond civil matters and requires for maintenance of order due to political disputes, it is termed as political policing 3. Secret Policing: not so much in the U.S.
Police brutality wouldn’t be an issue if we didn’t have to police our law enforcement officers. Policing our law enforcement officers is a challenge in itself, because who is responsible for this job, how are they going to police them, what actions are they going to take against them when they catch them and what are the penalties for
Reactive patrol is when police organizations around the world respond to a situation which is either called in or brought to their attention. This type of patrol can be the result of a request of 911 emergency calls or perhaps a citizen flagging them down. Reactive patrol does have benefits to help fighting crime yet at times if a proactive stance was taken maybe a reactive patrol would not be in order. Proactive patrol is when a police organization will assign an officer to patrol a certain area in order to deter criminal activity from happening. Proactive patrol has been known to deter crime in areas where criminal activity is high.
Sir Robert Peel- The impact on American Policing and History Sir Robert Peel created the Metropolitan Police in 1829 as he served as Home Secretary of England. Peel had many keys in policing and believed that prevention of criminal activities could be accomplished. His establishments nine principle of policing are still relevant today. Peel’s concept of prevention was community policing that has been implemented by other law enforcements across the country and was based on goals to prevent crime and obtain better community partnership. Community policing required special training in mediation and conflict, problem-solving and analysis, community organization, facilitation, communication, network, and linkages, and cross-cultural competency.
Concepts include community policing, problem oriented policing, and zero tolerance policies. Fundamental Objectives of Policing The fundamental objectives of policing are the critical reason why law enforcement agencies are established. Fundamental objectives of policing are as follows: 1. controlling and preventing actions that are a threat to life and property (includes critical crimes); 2. assisting victims and protecting individuals who may face physical harm; 3. protecting the rights of our constitution, such as the right to assembly and freedom of speech; 4. coordinating people and vehicle traffic; 5. helping those who cannot help themselves, including drug addicts, drunks, the physically or mentally disabled, elderly, juveniles and the mentally ill; 6. resolving conflicts among persons, groups, or with the government and its citizens;
Police Brutality In recent years, police actions, particularly police abuse, has come into view of a wide, public and critical eye. While citizens worry about protecting themselves from criminals, it has now been shown that they must also keep a watchful eye on those who are supposed to protect and serve. This paper will discuss the types of police abuse prevalent today, including the use of firearms and receipt of private information. I will also discuss what and how citizens' rights are taken advantage of by police. For these problems, solutions will be discussed, focusing on political reform, education, and citizen review boards.
Policing Policies Analysis AJS/582 January 14, 2013 Policing Policies Analysis Describe use of force policing policy Use of force policing policy is the concept of how the police keep control of social situations by using necessary force. “Use of force describes the amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject” (NIJ, 2012, Para. 1). There are different levels of use of force which include not just the basic verbal and physical restraints, but there is less-lethal force and lethal force as well. Officers have to use their best judgment in every situation but keep themselves and the public safe from harm (NIJ, 2012).
Cause and Effects of the Reform Era Throughout the 20th and 21st century’s policing has changed and evolved from various political, economic, and social forces. In order to better understand the function of police in society, one must understand the history of how policing has become what it is today particularly the impact of the Reform era through its causes and effects. Policing has been divided into three basic historical eras, which include the political era, reform era, and the present form of policing that is the community based problem-solving era. (Roberts) The history of policing goes back to 1829 and begins in London with Sir Robert Peel’s metropolitan police force, with a rising crime rate in and around the nation’s capitol attributed at the time to rapid urban growth, unchecked immigration, poverty, alcoholism, radical political groups, poor infrastructure, unsupervised juveniles, and lenient judges. The methods utilized by Sir Robert Peel have served as the traditional model for all American and British police forces ever since by using crime rates to determine the effectiveness of the police; the importance of a centrally located, publicly accessible police headquarters; and the value of proper recruitment, selection, and training.
“Professional Courtesy in Policing" Ethics, or moral conduct, are of major importance in the Criminal Justice Field. If the police force condoned unethical behavior, there would be very little, if any, justice being served. But what is unethical behavior and how do we judge moral conduct? Just as we all see this world through different eyes, we come to decisions through different life experiences. Due to the uniquely stressful work environment, Law Enforcement have created an occupational subculture with its own informal code of ethics.