The Arctic Small Tool Tradition, also known as Pre-Dorset, is a circumpolar cultural development which probably originated in Siberia. The oldest sites in North America appear suddenly on the west coast of Alaska about 4,000 years ago. Similarities to the Plano and Northwest micro blade traditions, as well as to Siberian Mesolithic blade technologies have caused considerable debate over origins (Irving 1962; Laughlin 1962, MacNeish 1964; Damas 1969). The technology bears no resemblance to the complexes which were previously present in the coastal regions of Alaska. The warming trend which was still evident at this time may have assisted in the rapid movement of people across the High Arctic.
Art History Ryder September 24, 2012 The Great Stupa Asian societies sustained many belief systems and rituals thousands of years ago that made such a huge impact it developed into religions that are currently utilized in today’s society. The Buddhist religion established from teachings and practices of Shakyamuni Buddha in 543 BCE to 483 BCE. People that practice Buddhism are exposed to the Four Noble Truths which is that 1) life is suffering; 2) desire is caused by suffering; 3) you can overcome desire; 4) following the 8 fold path of right view can help you extinguish that desire. The artworks of Buddhism are created in remembrance of Buddha’s’, and to symbolize their beliefs and understanding of life. Buddhism was the main inspiration for art in the region, and the most important Buddhist structures were created between the first and second century BCE.
On one hand, the Enlightenment views saw God as a far away figure that did not interfere with the lives of humans. The Enlightenment was a period of intellectual growth that tried to explain the true nature of mankind and how it progresses. One of the most important theorists for The Enlightenment was John Locke. John Locke created a theory called tabula theory, which had important assumptions about human nature and undermined Christian assertion that humankind was inherently sinful. Another person who also criticized some of the religious views was Pierre Bayle.
* Since this power was divinely given, there was a direct connection between the ruler and their god. * Zhou placed great emphasis on the veneration of ancestors and the family unit was the most important organizational structure. * During the Zhou dynasty iron metallurgy spread to China. Classical Civilizations * Greece * Politics revolved around the concept of the polis or city-state. * Two most famous cities were Athens and Sparta * Relied heavily on trade as the cornerstone of its economy.
One huge accomplishment of Qin Shihuangdi and the Qin dynasty was the precursor to the Great Wall of China, a huge defensive wall protecting the northern border of China from Mongolian attacks. They also built a strong military and established a powerful Bureaucracy. The Han dynasty had accomplishments that were based more on arts, education, and literature. There were many Chinese scholars and important texts that came from this period of time, including Yang Xiong, Huan Tan, Wang Chong, and Wang Fu. The Han even created a
In the beginning of early civilization many of the world’s people lived in small village settlements. (44) During this time Neolithic settlements used advance techniques like irrigation, the ox-drawn plow, and the domestication of plants to increase agricultural production, and provided the means to support thousands of people. This time period then turned into the Urban Revolution. During this time frame the invention of new tools, such as plows, sickles, and hoes made farming easier. This was a great achievement not previously seen in other periods of time.
8-UNIFICATION OF CHINA This chapter explores the unification and expansion of China during the Qin and Han dynasties (221 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.). A rich tradition of the social and political philosophies of Confucians, Daoists, and Legalists was the foundation on which these and later dynasties rested. Some of the significant elements contributing to the unification of China in this period were: * The building of a centralized bureaucracy staffed with professionals educated in Confucian thought and values * A prosperous economy based on technological and industrial development and long-distance trade * The standardization of the written language NOTES: * In search of political and social order * Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.)
Although agriculture based societies have been around for a long time in history and were pretty much the norm in this time period, their agriculture systems still created a surplus of crops, which allowed for increased populations. Next, both civilizations developed some form of record keeping. The Aztecs created a writing system of pictorial representations. While the Incas never developed a real writing system, they did form a system of colored ropes and knots, “quipu”, to communicate and keep records. These systems were pretty advanced and modern compared to civilization’s prior.
Animal husbandry was becoming widely used. This was just the beginning of the change, and many important players were able to create other innovations for the farm that would change the ways farms would work: The Seed Drill - Source • Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741) Jethro Tull was a key player in introducing and popularizing root vegetables. His major contributions to the Agricultural Revolution, however, were his two inventions: the seed drill and horse hoe (Gernhard). The seed drill was an innovation that allowed seeds to be easily planted deep into the earth instead of on top where the majority were washed away or otherwise lost. The machine was pulled by horses and consisted of rotating drills or runners that would plant seeds at a set depth (Seed Drill).
“It brought about an end to tedious handiwork and encouraged the invention and manufacture of other labor-saving farm implements and machinery” (Shaping Invention, page 374). It could harvest more grain than five men using the earlier cradles. During the Industrial Revolution, the government issued hundreds of thousands of patents, which are protection assuring an inventor that his or her invention would not be stolen by another person. America became the invention capital of the world. New tools and devices seemed to turn up every day to make people's lives more