On July 2, 1964 the Civil Rights Act was made law. It was a landmark piece of legislation in the Untied States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial segregation. In schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ended in unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation. Powers that were given to enforce the act were initially weak, but were supplemented during later years, Congress stated its authority to legislate under several different parts of the Untied States Constitution, principally its power to regulate interstate commerce under Article One, its duty to guarantee all citizens equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment and its duty to protect voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment.
John F. Kennedy, who was president at the time asked in his Civil Rights speech on June 11, 1963 that “giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public- hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and similar establishments,” as he also asked for “greater protection for the right to vote.”
Imitating the Civil Rights Act of 1875, Kennedy's civil rights bill included changes to ban discrimination in public facilities, and to enable the U.S. Attorney Gerneral to join in lawsiuts against state goverments which operated segregated school systems, among other provisions. However, it did not include a number of provisions deemed essential by civil rights leaders including protection against police brutality, ending discrimination in private employment, or granting the Justice Department power to initiate desegregation or job discrimination lawsuits.
House of Representatives was sent the bill, and referred to the House Judiciary Committee, charied by Emmanuel Celler, a Democrat in New York. After a series of hearings on the bill, Celler’s committee greatly strengthened the act, adding provisions to ban racial...