One form of extractive metallurgy, called hydrometallurgy, uses aqueous solution chemistry for the recovery of metals from salts minerals or ores. The first step of hydrometallurgy, called extraction, is the process of removing metal from the ore. This is done by dissolving the metal in a suitable solvent, recovering the metal from the solution, and discarding the waste materials. The first step of extraction is leaching, in which the metal is dissolved in water or acid. Then the leach solution is purified by separating the waste from the desired materials.
Also, the chromium in chromite may sometimes be replaced by aluminum and ferrous ions. Hydrometallurgy is a way to separate the different elements making up ores and isolate the metals from each other. In order for this to occur, the ore must be melted down into a solution. After the metals of the ore have been dissolved, they may be separated from each other by many different processes, some of the most popular are leaching and precipitating the metal from the solution via electrolysis or chemical means. In this experiment the team of students must determine exactly what is in chromite sample, and also confirm the existence of all such metals that should be in the sample of chromite.
Stoichiometry of a Neutralization Reaction & Aluminum Leftovers Labs By: Blaze Burnell February 2, 2013 Abstract: The objective of these two labs was to observe how important stoichiometry is in the world of chemistry to understand reactions, predict amounts of reactants needed and products produced, and to determine the identity of unknown substances. Stoichiometry is the branch of chemistry concerned with measuring the proportions of elements that combine during chemical reactions(Bing). The importance of stoichiometry was reinforced through a single replacement reaction and a titration experiment. Both of these experiments along with many others throughout the chemistry world relied fully on stoichiometry and a good understanding of the periodic table in order to finish the required calculations. Introduction: Stoichiometry is the branch of chemistry concerned with measuring the proportions of elements that combine during chemical reactions (Bing).
| Centrifuge: used to isolate the solid from the solution | . Focus Questions: When acidified water is not used in the zinc and iodine synthesis, zinc hydroxide is formed. How can it be identified based on the amphoteric nature. When zinc and iodine react without the presence of acetic acid in the water, zinc hydroxide forms. This is evident because the substance tested positive for both the acid test and the base test for zinc hydroxide.
Then the content of the chloride in the original salt is then calculated using stoichiometry (Chemistry Department, 2014). Theory: Gravimetric analysis is the measurement of mass, which by definition is categorized into four types however the use of one is only necessary in this experiment, which is precipitation (Gravimetric Analysis, 2012). Therefore the goal is to determine the original amount of ion. This is by isolating the ion in solution by a precipitation reaction, filtering and washing the precipitate free of pollutants, then the conversion of that precipitate to a product of the unknown sample given (Gravimetric Analysis, 2012).Therefore determining the quantitative of that substance by the precipitation reaction. The equation of the precipitate proceeds as follow if followed by the criteria given.
As aforementioned, the main objective of this lab is to determine whether or not the unknown sample is in fact chromium. In order to do so, the experimenter has a limited list of chemicals to use, which include: * Iron (III) Nitrate, Solid * Chromium (III) Nitrate, Solid * 1.00 M Hydrochloric Acid Solution * 4 M Sodium Hydroxide Solution * Zinc Metal The experimenter also has access to unlimited use of: * Standard lab equipment and glassware * MeasureNet temperature probe * MeasureNet pH probe and drop counter * MeasureNet spectrophotometer and Curvettes In this experiment, the experimenter will utilize various skills learned from previous labs in order to conduct the experiment in a productive and efficient manner. For instance, Chemical reactions will be utilized in order to separate the mixed unknown sample into its various components. One must know that the driving force behind double displacement reactions is the removal of ions, and one must also know that a precipitation reaction is used when two aqueous solutions of ionic compounds are mixed, and a solid is formed. Another example of students using knowledge from a previous experiment is when the experimenter must perform an emission analysis on the remaining aqueous Chromium
Metal, Metalloid, or Nonmetal act activity 11/2/2014 The chemical reactions given off by each element will be studied Supplies see lab Procedure see lab Iv the types of elements used Dv the chemical reaction given off Constants well plates, spatula, pipette, wash bottles, HCI, and 1MCuCl2 Conductivity Mg no C yes S no Si yes Pb no Sn yes S brittle Pb Malleable Si Malleable Mg Malleable Sn Brittle C Malleable Crushing Qualitative observations Pb, Mg, and Si had a shiny and reflective surface S had a yellow and dusty surface Sn had a lined surface while C has a smooth surface Data analysis Pb, Mg, and Sn are metals. S and C are nonmetals. Si is a metalloids. You can tell whether a element is a metal or nonmetal based on its place on the periodic table, elements on the left side are metals, elements on the right are non metals, where the left and the right meet up we get the metalloids, elements sharing both the properties of metals and nonmetals. I can also figure this out from are observation of the elements.
Specific Heat By: James Ott Date: January 1, 2013 PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment is to measure the temperature of metals, and estimate the specific heat for a metal. This experiment is also an introduction to the use of a calorimeter. This is a good way of using a known amount of metal and a known temperature change. The calculation for finding specific heat of a metal is: q=s x m x Δt MATERIALS Materials required complete the lab: * Test tube * Bunsen burner * 100 g Iron (Fe) shot * Thermometer * 250 ml beaker with 150 ml Water (H2O) in beaker at room temperature * Calorimeter with 100 ml Water (H2O) at room temperature * 100 g Aluminum (Al) shot * 100 g Copper (Cu) shot METHOD * Set up one test tube * Add 100g Iron shot and thermometer * Setup a 250 ml beaker with 150 ml room temperature water * Place filled test tube in beaker * Setup a Bunsen burner * Hover beaker over Bunsen burner until thermometer reads 100˚C * While beaker is warming, set up calorimeter with 100 ml of room temperature water (20˚C) * When metal temperature reaches 100˚C, remove from beaker and pour liquid into calorimeter, close lid and read thermometer reading * Record reading * Repeat above steps for other two metals DATA Metal | Initial Temp. (˚C) | Final Temp.
For this particular exercise, you should be familiar with the following: • Sublimation: Many chemicals will sublime (phase change from solid state to gas state) provided the right conditions. Iodine, for example, sublimes at room temperature. A bottle of iodine will thus always have crystals forming around inside the bottle around the cap where sublimed iodine is being deposited (phase change from gas state back to solid state). Provided the proper equipment, chemicals that are being sublimed can be recovered. Decant(ing): Decanting is a way of separating a solid from a liquid.
Hypothesis: The hypothesis is that the component ions of the solution can be identified. This is because each ion has different solubility conditions. Thus, using their difference in their solubility, the ions can be separated through the method of selective precipitation. After the separation, the ions can be confirmed through other means such as reacting with other substances to see the color change and etc. Materials: Materials Distilled water 0.2 M Silver nitrate (AgNO3) 0.2 M Copper(II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2) 0.2 M Zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) 0.2 M Iron(III) nitrate (Fe(NO3)3) 0.2 M Manganese(II) nitrate (Mn(NO3)2) 0.2 M Aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3) 0.2 M Potassium iodide (KI) 0.2 M Sodium bromide (NaBr) 0.2 M Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 0.2 M Sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.2 M Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) 0.2 M Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) 6 M Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 6 M Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 6 M Nitric acid solution (HNO3) 6 M Acetic acid solution (CH3COOH) 6 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl) 6 M Ammonia solution (NH3) 0.1 M Barium chloride (BaCl2) 0.1 M Silver nitrate (AgNO3) 0.1 M Potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) 0.1 M Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) 0.1 M Potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) Aluminum granules (Al) Saturated barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) 0.1% Aluminon 3% Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Mineral oil Quantities 25 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 8 mL 10 mL 10 mL 10 mL