Case Study Risk of Infectious and Communicable Diseases Cholera, a gastrointestinal infection caused by toxigenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 or O139, can cause acute, severe, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. Known risk factors for cholera outbreaks include lack of access to safe drinking water, contaminated food, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees or internally displaced persons. The 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti following a severe earthquake and flooding underscored the vulnerability of populations due to poor sanitation, a strained public health infrastructure, and large numbers of displaced people. The earthquake in January 2010, damaged drinking water treatment facilities and piped water distribution systems throughout Haiti, and displaced an estimated 2.3 million people, the flooding that occurred later in the year exacerbated the problems. As of mid-November 2010, the Haitian Ministry of
Author: Jake Date: 12/09/2010 Introduction This essay includes my findings from research on the disease, and explains the signs, symptoms, causes, cures and prevention of the pathogen Cholera. The Bacterium Cholera is a severe bacterial infection caused by the bacterium “Vibrio cholerae”, the most common symptoms of the infection are diarrhoea ,vomiting and muscle cramps, this can lead to rapid dehydration and sometimes death. You can transmit Cholera by water that is contaminated with infected faeces; and also transmit it due to poor food hygiene1. Cholera kills an estimated 120,000 people a year2. If the bacteria enter the small intestine, they use their flagella to propel themselves through the lining of the intestinal wall, they produce a toxic protein.
Malathion Risk Assessment In 2006, 177 fatalities were reported in the United States due to the West Nile Virus (Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). While in recent years this virus has plagued our beautiful city of Genericville, it is projected that this year it will be worse with a possibility of 50 cases of sickness and two deaths. During the last city council meeting, it was proposed to begin using the insecticide spray Malathion. Before I could vote on the use of this product in our city, I needed more information. After reviewing the information provided and finding more on my own, I have made the decision to vote against using Malathion in Genericville.
Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/varicella/default.htm National Shingles Foundation . (n.d.). Retrieved from National Shingles Foundation : http://www.vzvfoundation.org/faq.html Prevalence and Incidence of Chickenpox. (2013, May 7). Retrieved from Right Diagnosis from healthgrades: http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/c/chickenpox/prevalence.htm Vaccine Information: Varicella (Chickenpox).
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OSH Act, OSHA standards, inspections, citations and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/doc/outreachtraining /htmlfiles/introsha.html Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2013). OSHA Requirements That Apply to Many Health Care Employers. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_ assistance/quickstarts/health_care/hc_step1.html Occupational Safety and Health Administration.