This treaty stated that, in return for military and economic aid, China would recognize Russiaa as the Communist World Leader. However, when Stalin died, Mao felt that he himself was now senior to Khrushchev and found much to dislike in the new Soviet leaders policies. This lead to
In Japan the Meiji restoration had to stop the warring factions and create a single ruler. From ether, the newly centralized government could dictate what had to be done to expand. This new centralization worked extremely well. A major difference is that Russia used foreign loans to build its infrastructure and assets, including railroads and heavy manufacturing. Ordinarily, this would be economic ruin as was the ruse for the Ottoman, but Russia nationalize those, or essentially stole then during the 1917 revolution.
This question focuses on the events which took place in Russia leading up to 1905 to cause a Revolution. The events which took place were either long term factors which built up over a period of time or medium term factors which were less long term or short term factors which triggered the revolution. Arguably the most important factor which led to the 1905 revolution was down to Russia’s incompetent government. The main reasons for the incompetence of the government was that it always had the same views as the Tsar as the appointed governors were appointed by the Tsar and dismissed by him as he pleased. This made the government not original so the country could not benefit from it.
Opposition did influence governmental change under every ruler apart from Alexander III who kept the opposition “underground”. Opposition was responsible for two changes in governments; the assassination of Alexander II and the Bolshevik revolution. However, both cases did not result in any governmental development to a more liberal and modern style of government. The assassination of Alexander II only led to his replacement by the far more reactionary Alexander III who actually caused the development of Russian government to regress as he removed several reforms that Alexander II was responsible for. Lenin had a similar effect as ultimately Russia remained an autocratic state, and also resulted in a regression in the development of Russian government initially as the Communist state had even less representation than under Nicholas II by virtue of the removal of the state duma.
When conquering China, the Mongols kicked the bureaucratic elite to the curb, hired new foreign rulers, and eliminated the civil service examinations. On the contrary, the Mongols in Russia weren’t as strict and direct. While Chinese traditions were eliminated, Russian princes were allowed to rule and a whole new dual system of regional administration was set up. Another contrast is centers of power for each state. In China, the main center of commerce was modern day Beijing.
There were many factors in the survival of Tsarist rule from 1881 – 1905. The divisions among it's opponents played a part, as it meant that Tsarist opposition had no common goals, and couldn't work together to achieve it. The October Manifesto is another factor, it split up Nicholas' opposition even further by dividing the Liberals into two groups. Pobedonostsev & his repressive policies played a large part in the Survival of Tsarist autocracy, as he was able to keep the people down, not giving them enough ground to start a successful revolution. Lastly, Russia's backward society is one of the main reasons Nicholas II survived after 1905.
Russia was still an autocratic state (the Tsar held completed political power). The reformist groups wanted to amend this so the Tsar had less power. The reformist groups also known as the radical parties all had various different ideas as to how they were going to go about reforming the country. They grew in numbers from 1881 and gained a lot of support from various different social groups. The Socialist Revolutionary Party wanted to completely abolish the Tsar’s power and give the peasants power to advance Russia.
How far do you agree that communists and Tsars ruled Russia in the same way? The February Revolution of 1917 that brought down the Tsarist regime and led to the ascension of the Provisional Government, had much potential to bring about significant change from the autocratic regime of the Tsars. However, the totalitarian government of the communists seized power in the October Revolution and continued to maintain many aspects of Tsarist rule including the top-down approach to rule, their ideology in policy making and their repressive methods. Although the communists and Tsars appeared to rule differently in their theory, in practice their methods were to a very large extent the same. The top-down approach the rulers of Russia had in the period 1855-1964 were superficially different as the communists claimed to represent the people by giving power to the proletariat where as the Tsars were heavily elitist in their ideology.
Many Russian intellectuals were rising up against the Tsar; they believed that the regime was oppressive and that European countries had more freedom and felt that many Russians lacked basic freedoms seen in other European nations. Even though the formation of political parties was illegal in Russia, these intellectuals started to form groups of people who shared a similar opinion. Some felt that change in Russia could only be achieved through revolution and the overthrowing of the Tsarist regime while others believed that changes needed to be made through reform and a gradual revolution. These opposition groups were known as the Liberals, the Populists and the Marxists. Firstly, the Liberals were made up of middle class Russians such as lawyers, doctors, and teachers and so on.
Document 10 explains an economic factor that contributed to the Russian Revolution. Russia, at the time, was not economically ready for the World War I. But, because they were forced to fight by Tsar Nikolas II, which made Russia weak. In Document 9, Miliukov accuses the government for causing the Revolution because of treason. He describes the government as disorganized.