Child labour has impacted the cultures of Europe.
Beliefs in the Victorian Era impacted the future of child labour. The Victorian Era was notoriously known for employing children in the factories and mines. Charles Dicks for example worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory and many other children of that age worked as chimney sweeps. In 19th-century Great Britain, one-third of poor families were without a breadwinner, as a result of death or abandonment, obliging many children to be put to work at a young age. Many children would work 16 hour a day shifts and many of them would start at the tender age of 3. In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described to be children and many of them had horrible wounds and were extremely skinny. The children of the poor, during the Victorian era, were expected to help towards the family budget and were rewarded with extremely low pay, earning 10-20% of an adult male’s wage. As early as 1802 to 1819 factory acts were passed to regulate the working hours of workhouse children in the factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts turned out to be high ineffective and after radical agitation, by the “Short Time Committees” in 1831, a Royal Commission recommended in 1833 that children aged 11 to 18 should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged 9 to 11 a maximum of 8 hours, and children under the age of 9 were no longer permitted to work. So many factories decided to ignore this law that it became almost non-existent except for in history books. During the whole of the Victorian age, an estimated 1.7 million children under the age of 15 were employed in industries by 1900.