Chemistry Study Guide Essay

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The ULTIMATE Chemistry Semester 2 Study Guide! Iron: Fe+2 is ferrous Fe+3 is ferric Copper: Cu+1 is cuprous Cu+2 is cupric Lead: Pb+2is plumbous Pb+4 is plumbic Tin: Sn+2 is stannous Sn+4 is stannic Periodic Table TRENDS * As you move right along the periodic table… decreasing atomic radius, increasing ionization energy, increasing electronegativity, increasing electron affinity, constant shielding * As you move down the periodic table… increasing atomic radius, decreasing ionization energy, decreasing electronegativity, increasing shielding WTF is that stuff? * Atomic radius is the distance between the nuclei of atoms when they are involved in a chemical bond. As you increase the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom, you increase the nuclear charge of the atoms and therefore the effective nuclear charge. The principal quantum number, n, determines the size of the electron cloud and orbitals, and so, the size of the atom. As we move down a group, the attractive force of the nucleus dissipates s the electrons spend more time farther from the nucleus and are shielded from the nuclear charge by inner energy level electrons. * Ionic radius is the distance between two ions, determined by the ion with more protons in its nucleus; the more protons in the nucleus, the tighter its electrons will hold, thus, a smaller anion. * Ionization energy is the energy in kilojoules (kJ) required to remove a mole (mol) of electrons from a mole of atoms in the gas phase. * Electron affinity is the amount of energy released when a mole of electrons is gained by a mole of atoms in the gaseous state. When an electron is added to an atom, the atom forms a negative ion. Most often, energy is released as an electron is added to an atom and the greater the attraction between the atom and the electron added the more negative the atom’s electron

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