Chemistry Answer Chapter 2 Essay

3164 WordsSep 23, 201513 Pages
Page # 31: 1. What is the scientific method? A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories supported by data. 2. Which of the following are quantitative? a. The liquid floats on water qualitative b. The metal is malleable qualitative c. The liquid has a temperature of 55.6 °C quantitative 3. How do hypotheses and theories differ? A hypothesis is a testable statement that serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments. A theory is a broad generalization that explains a body of facts of phenomena. 4. How are models related to theories and hypotheses? A useful model is usually proposed after a hypothesis is shown to be correct. A model that successfully explains many phenomena may become part of a theory. 5. Suppose you had to test how well two types of soap work. Describe your experiment using the terms control and variable. Answers can vary. Each trial in the experiment should involve using the two types of soap under the same set of conditions. Controlled variables might include water temperature or type of soil or grease to be cleaned. Page # 40: 1. What is the density of a block of marble that occupies 310. cm3 and has a mass of 853 g? 2.75 g/cm3 2. Diamond has a density of 3.26 g/cm3. What is the mass of a diamond that has a volume of 0.351 cm3? 1.14 g 3. What is the volume of a sample of liquid mercury that has a mass of 76.2 g, given that the density of mercury is 13.6 g/mL? 5.60 mL Page # 42 - Practice: 1. Express a length of 16.45 m in centimeters and kilometers. 1645 cm & 0.01645 km 2. Express a mass of 0.014 mg in grams 0.000 014 g Page # 42 –Section Review: 1. Why are standards needed for measured quantities? There must be agreement on meaning and size of units. Standards for units must

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