AP Chemistry P2 Experiment 2: Formula of a Hydrate 9/24/2013 Purpose: Calculate the percent composition of water in a hydrate and determine the empirical formula of the hydrate. Procedure: 1) Set up ring stand with ring clamp, clay triangle, crucible with lid, and burner. Adjust the height of the ring stand. 2) Dehydrating Procedures: 3. Measure approximately 1 g of Copper(II) Sulfate Hydrate into the crucible and crucible and lid.
In Cycle 4, the clear liquid formed in Cycle 3 was decanted. Afterwards 10 mL of distilled water was added once again. 9.0 mL of 3 M H2SO4 was added drop wise into the solution until a color change occurs. Thereafter Cycle 5 began and another 5 mL of distilled water was added to the reaction in Cycle 4. The beaker was placed onto a magnetic stir plate so that the stir rod could stir the solution while 0.5 g of zinc was added.
Question: Find a method to find the specific heat capacity of an unknown object. Hypothesis: Using the equation q=mc∆T, the heat capacity of the unknown object can be determined. Assuming heat loss by water = heat gained by the object, we can use two simultaneous equations to solve for the c value of the object. Variables: Controlled – time for water to cool, mass of metal, volume of water Dependent – change in temperature Materials: • Hot plate • The unknown object • Thermometer • Mass balance • Calorimeter • Water • Beaker Procedure: 1. Carefully measure 200 mL of water for the beaker and the calorimeter.
Purification By Crystallization Experiment perf: 6/25/12 Report submitted: 7/2/2012 Abstract: In this crystallization experiment we were trying to separate a crystalline solid from a reaction mixture that had impurities. We accomplished this by dissolving our solution which was Acetanilide in a solvent. After the mixture was boiled, we then added decolorizing charcoal to help remove the colored impurities. Once this mixture was hot enough we transferred it into another beaker by using a funnel and then let it cool off. When our filtered solution started to cool off over time crystals started to form.
Lab 4: Determination of Percent by Mass of the Composition in a Mixture by Gravimetric Analysis Introduction Thermal gravimetric analysis is used to determine the percent by mass is used to determine the percent by mass of a component in a mixture. When a mixture is heated to an appropriately high temperature, one component in the mixture decomposes to form a gaseous compound. The mass of this particular component is related to the mass of the gaseous compound. In this experiment, the percent by mass of sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) and potassium chloride (KCl) in a mixture will be determined. Experimental First, we weighed 2 samples, each has 1 gram of NaHCO3-KCl mixture Second, we put the samples in 2 crucibles (A and B) and weighed them.
Then by writing a balanced chemical equation and using the titration formula, Nb+Ma+Va=Na+MbVb , the molarity is able to be determined. Procedure: 1) Using the graduated cylinder add 10.0 mL of water into the Erlenmeyer flask. 2) Add 5.0 mL of HCl into the flask using another graduated cylinder because acid goes into water when mixing them. 3) Add three drops of phenolphthalein indicator into the flask. 4) Swirl the flask in circular movements to mix the substances.
Task 3 To separate a mixture containing water (boiling point 100 0C) butan-1-ol (boiling point 117 0C) I will use fractional distillation. I am choosing fractional distillation as it is the process by which components in a chemical mixture are separated according to their different boiling points . Vapors from a boiling solution are passed along a column. The temperature of the column gradually decreases along its length. Components with a higher boiling points condense on the column and return to the solution ; components with a lower boiling points pass through the column and are collected.
It dehydrates sucrose (table sugar), C12H22O11, leaving a spongy black mass of carbon and diluted sulfuric acid. Concentrated sulfuric acid reacts similarly with skin, paper, and other animal and plant matter. When it is mixed with water, a highly exothermic reaction occurs, and the energy released can be enough to heat the mixture to boiling. Therefore, concentrated sulfuric acid has to be diluted by adding the acid slowly to cold water while the mixture is stirred to dissipate the heat. The first successful method for making sulfuric
Required Materials: Solids: KNO3 unknown concentration, KNO3 Liquids: Tap Water, DI Water Other: 1 burette, 1 1000 mL beaker, 5 test tubes, thermometer, heating pad Objectives: • To determine the effect of temperature of the solubility of a salt. • To construct a solubility curve for the salt. • To determine the mass of an unknown size sample of the salt. Theory: Solubility is a measure of t he amount of one substance that can be dissolved in a measured amount of another substance. In this experiment we are going to measure the solubility of KNO3 in water at various temperatures.
1.1 Title: Investigating Viscosity 1.2 Research Question: How does varying the temperature (15 C, 30 C, 45 C, 60 C, 75 C) of 300cm^3 of cooking oil affect its viscosity, calculated by measuring the average velocity of a steel ball weight of 5g, falling through a 300cm^3 glass tube (25 cm in length)? 1.3 Scientific background: The intermolecular forces between the liquid molecules affect the viscosity of a liquid. As temperature increases, the intermolecular forces are weakening and some of them are overcome. Thus, the viscosity of cooking oil will decrease with an increase in temperature. As the liquid is more viscous, the ball weight would be experiencing more resistance in its motion and would thus have a lower average velocity.