If there are higher levels of potassium, then the resting membrane potential will be less than normal and an action potential will be not likely with the same amount stimulation. More voltage is needed. • Explain how hypokalemia will initially affect the resting membrane potential and the generation of an action potential. The resting membrane potential is based on the polarization of the cell. If there are lower levels of potassium, then the resting membrane potential will be higher than normal and an action potential will be more likely with less stimulation.
5. Certain respiratory disorders, such as emphysema, reduce the capacity of the lungs to recoil elastically. Which respiratory volumes will this condition affect? Explain the impact on gas exchange. Emphysema affects the maximal volume of air that can be exhaled.
Case Study Progress. The room air ABG results are reviewed. According to the results M.M. is in respiratory acidosis. Because of M.M.’s increased Kussmaul respirations he is unable to fully express carbon dioxide from his lungs causing the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood to increase and the pH to decrease causing acidosis.
Also, the more stable the free radical that is left behind, the weaker its C-H bond strength will be. The difference between the bromine and chlorine product ratios can be partially explained by the Hammond postulate, which states that species with similar energy levels also have more similar structures and react more quickly and less selectively. In the experiment, five different hydrocarbons were tested to measure the rate of reaction with the addition of bromine. Two trials were done, one with the test tubes containing the hydrocarbons and added bromine sitting directly under a lamp, and another with the test tubes in a closed, dark space. Both trials contained a
When stressed our immune system’s ability to fight off viral infections is reduced due to a decrease of white blood cells. This is known as immunosuppression, this occurs when the stress hormone corticosteroid is present from a stress response and lowers the number of lymphocytes such as B-cells and T-cells . Stress can have two types of effects, a direct effect or an indirect effect. The direct effect is when stress affects our health directly, for example, when stressed our digestive system is inhibited, after stress is gone, the digestive activity increases, this can lead to the occurrence of Ulcers in the stomach. Stress also increases the heart rate and can lead to the increase of blood pressure, thus Hypertension and can lead to Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).
He would see a decrease in urinary output as his kidneys worked to maintain volume in the body. 3. Marks blood pressure was low because his blood vessels had dilated to dissipate heat. His heart rate would vary depending upon what stage he was in. Initially it would rise in an attempt to compensate and hold the blood pressure up, but after awhile the body would tire and his heart rate would fall.
How do Don’s BP, pulse, and respiration compare to that which is considered “normal”? Don’s blood pressure, pulse, and respiration are all higher than what is considered normal. Source: Vital Sign Reference Charts 4. What factors or evidence would you draw upon to support the diagnosis of emphysema? The first factor when diagnosing Don with emphysema would be the shortness of breath.
Cholesterol also makes the membrane less fluid by restraining the movement of phospholipids and lowers the temperature required to solidify the membrane. Complete depletion of cholesterol and sphingolipids results in cell death as their presence allows permeability to small molecules such as ions, glucose, and water. How does temperature affect lipid membrane? A membrane remains fluid as the temperature decreases, until it solidifies once it hits a critical temperature. The temperature at which a membrane solidifies depends on its fatty acid composition.
Nitroglycerin is a smooth muscle relaxer and vasodilator. This drug provides myocardial oxygen which reduces myocardial wall tension. Reduction in myocardial wall tension corresponds with lower systolic pressure. Beta blockers are antagonistic beta receptor blockers which act on the heart to reduce the amount of work the cardiac muscles have to do. By blocking beta receptors, the heart rate will be slowed and reduces demand for oxygen and contractility.
When the body detects stress, the SNS is activated which leads to raised heart rate, which leads to higher blood pressure which can lead to Chronic Heart Disease, heart attack, stroke etc. The Beta Blocker is taken then and it acts by reducing activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline and also binds to the receptors of the heart and other areas of the body stimulated by arousal. As a result of blocking these receptors, it is therefore harder to stimulate them and so the heart beat is slowed, and therefore lower blood pressure. A strength of drug treatment is that they are proven to be affective, for example Kahn et al tested 250 participants over 8 weeks, and found that BZs were better than a placebo. The drugs are also very quick and easy to use, and do not require extra effort or stress that could be incurred using other, longer methods of stress management.