A person’s own immune system attacks the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of the nerves. Once the myelin sheath is damaged, the nerves cannot transmit signals properly. Nerve damage leads to muscle weakness, loss of reflexes, and numbing or tingling of the hands and feet. This is caused by the muscles loss of ability to respond to the brains commands. GBS is not often fatal but in rare cases people have died from GBS.
G. The autonomic receptors that regulate closing of sphincters and relaxation of organ walls are Adrenergic (Alpha 1) receptors. H. The term polyneuropathy would be appropriate for the symptoms that Nick is experiencing because his problems are being caused by damage to more than one nerve. I. The symptoms noted by Nick’s PCP that indicated polyneuropathy included his inability to feel pressure or pain, his tingling in his feet, his decreased reflexes, and his dizziness and unsteadiness on his feet. J. Nicks
It is understood to be a disorder of pain processing and sensitivity. As described before serotonin, catecholamines, and dopamine all have a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. Abnormal functions of the stress response system of the body and the central nervous system are both to blame for fibromyalgia. The serotonin levels within the body have a large role, as this neurotransmitter helps to control pain. Fibromyalgia is often present when an individual has low levels of this specific neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Case Study 12 1. The myasthenia gravis has affected his voice and has affected his ability to use his skeletal muscles correctly and these muscles are important in speech. 2. They have trouble holding their heads up because the muscles acetylcholine receptors are not working and this is because the myasthenia gravis and their ability to contract is reduced. 3.
Understanding Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematous) Takeia Foxx December 4th, 2012 EDU 100 Ms. O Lupus also called Systemic Lupus Erythematous, or SLE may not have a cure, but it’s a highly treatable condition. People who are affected by Lupus go through many complications on an everyday basis. Not only, do the patients feel pain and the family suffer as well. Lupus can be very detrimental to one’s health. Lupus medications can help lower long-term risk and keep symptoms under control.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. This means that your immune system isn’t working like it should and begins attacking healthy tissue. What is RA? RA most often targets your joints. Your joint is surrounded by tissue called the synovium, which supports and protects it.
With reduced mobility, muscles can become floppy and make movement slower and more difficult, but when muscles are used on a regular basis, they remain firm and move more easily. When supporting moving and positioning activities, it is important to remember that muscles can only move the bones at a joint as far as the joint allows. For example, the elbow and knee joints have limited movement; trying to extend these joints beyond their range can cause painful damage to the joint. Nerve fibres run all the way through the body and send impulses to muscles, which enable the muscles to contract and relax. Nerve fibres are delicate structures and can easily become damaged through poor moving and handling techniques.
The muscles pull and move the bones of particular joints which then make the joints move and in turn the body then moves. We must also remember that joints like the knee and the elbow have only limited movement and trying to push past this limitation can cause damage to the joints which will be painful. 2. Strokes can cause permanent weakness or paralysis on one side of an individuals body when this happens it is important to know which side has been affected by the stroke and how to move that individual without causing them pain. Individuals suffering from arthritis can often be left with stiff and painful joints and frequently have limited movement in the affect areas.
A fracture of a bone may mean that it does not heal quickly or may become infected which can restrict movement of a person’s hand or leg for example which makes it difficult for moving around. Stiff, painful, swollen and inflamed joints are the result of arthritis and can restrict movement. 1.3- Reduced mobility can affect an individual’s well-being. Physically, reduced mobility can result in blood clots, stiffness of joints, swelling of feet and ankles, pressure sores these can be very painful for the individual. Emotionally, an individual may feel depressed, low in themselves and negative.
The frequency of the tics is known to fluctuate and include eye blinking, twitching, grunting, and head shaking. (Phelps, 2008) The afflicted often will have social inappropriateness, trouble with the law, coprolalia, and copropraxia (Channon et al, 2009). Both types of tics must be present in order to diagnose the person with Tourette’s. If only one symptom is present, the patient’s disorder would be diagnosed as either chronic motor or visual tic disorder. Tics may occur from one to a thousand times per hour (Friedman, 1980).