Absorptivity of Bentonite Clay Final Project CHEM 112-501 Melissa Cisneros* Danielle Salo The purpose of this experiment was to test the absorptivity of Bentonite clay, charcoal, and another type of clay. Bentonite clay as well as charcoal can be used as a means of removing pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water sources. Materials and Methods: Materials used in this experiment were 600 mL beaker, 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 50 mL graduated cylinder, ring stand and clamp, thermometer, hot plate, tongs, pipet, spatula, centrifuge tubes, a centrifuge, cuvettes, and a spectrophotometer. Chemicals used were FeCl3 Anhydrous, FeSO4- 7H2O, Bentonite clay, 2.5 M NaOH solution, and Procion Red MX-5. To make the clay, 250 mL of distilled water was heated in a 600 mL beaker to 70° to be used as a hot water bath for the Erlenmeyer flask.
Unit 3003 1. Sustainable Materials Materials | Sustainability | Where They May be Used | Polystyrene | * Petroleum-based Product * Can Be recycled * Pollution caused through manufacture * High Insulation properties | This product is mainly used as packaging for many different products | Polyurethane | * Made From Volatile organic compounds that damage the environment * Often turned into foams * Gives off harmful chemicals when burned * Disposal issues: if the foam catches fire, it causes pollution and produces carcinogenic gases | Polyurethane sealants are used to fill gaps thereby preventing air and water leakage. They are also used in conjunction with inorganic insulation, such as Rockwool or ceramic fibres, for fire stopping. | Softwood | * Can Be Recycled into other products * A managed resource that can be grown over and over again * Provides a pollution filter, takes in carbon dioxide and produces oxygen * A natural green product * Require treatment to prevent rot | Can be Used for many things. And Made into different things | Hardwood | * Forms part of a tropical rainforest * Intensively felled * Takes a longer time to re-grow the softwood * Expensive resource | As Above | Concrete | * Cement production causes Co2 emissions * Disposal issues – can only be crushed and used as hard-core * Hardwearing with a long lifespan * Relies on a lot of formwork and flasework | Mass concrete structures: These large structures typically include gravity dams, such as the Hoover Dampre-stressed concrete structures: Pre-stressed concrete is a form of reinforced concrete that builds in compressive stresses during construction to oppose those found when in use Concrete textures: concrete can be cast and moulded into different textures and used for decorative concrete applications | Common Brick | * Manufacture
Copper (II) sulfate is toxic to fish, and must be used wisely when eradicating pesky snails and fish parasites. To protect our water pipes, we use Copper (II) sulfate to keep evasive water plant roots at bay. This special Compound is also a helping hand in organic synthesis, reacting with potassium permanganate to make an oxidant for primary alcohols. At one point in the medical field Copper (II) sulfate was used as an emetic, which made a patient throw up immediately after consumption, but is now regarded too toxic for this use. The most interesting use most would say, is the way Roger Hiorns used 75,000 liters of Cu(II)SO4 to fill an apartment, and left it to solidify for many weeks.
This crude product is an approximately 25% solution of hydrofluosilicic acid and a highly toxic hazardous waste of the phosphate fertilizer industry. ii. The proper disposal of this chemical would have been extremely costly to the industry so the proposal that it could be used as a substitute for the originally favored chemical sodium fluoride, opened the door to the practice of administering it to the general public in the water supply under the guise of medication. B. At the heart of this debate is whether or not fluoridated water can be considered a medicine, thereby making it subject to strict government regulations and standards.
The mixture was refluxed to avoid evaporation while it boiled for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes the mixture was cooled and then filtered through fluted filter paper into a 250ml round bottom flask. The methyene chloride dissolved the trimystrin and would pass through the filter paper leaving the other nutmeg solids behind. The solution was then distilled to get rid of the methlyene chloride and isolate the trimyristin. Methlyene chloride was a good solvent in this case because its boiling point is 40 degrees C and will boil off before the trimyristin which has a boiling point of 56-57 degrees C. Finally acetone was added to wash the crystals and the solution was vacuum filtered.
Hydrogen Peroxide at high concentrations can be lethal. Catalase is there to help with the processes of breaking it down to assure that this doesn’t happen. The purpose of this lab was to help us understand what happens when an enzyme works with a substrate to make the reaction faster. It was to help show us what the effects of pH and temperature on the enzyme’s reaction. My hypothesis for the experiment was that the optimum temperature for catalase to function is 98.6o F because this is the optimum temperature for the human body.
Ailsa Cottam 28.10.13 Separating salt and sand. Introduction In this experiment students were asked to separate a mixture of salt and sand, illustrating the fundamental means of separating a mixture of an insoluble material from one which is soluble. Aims/Hypothesis Students were asked to perform an experiment into the separation of a mixture of salt and sand, identifying the calculations of both sand and salt once going through the separation process. The separation techniques that were used in the lab were Evaporation and Filtration. Materials Protective Glasses | Beaker (250ml) | Stirring rod | Filter funnel | Filter paper | Evaporating basin | Bunsen burner | Heat resistant mat | Tripod | Gauze | Sand | Salt | Matches | | | Method After collecting all the materials needed for the experiment, the students were asked to weigh a mixture of sand and salt (5g) into a 250ml beaker.
Science Focus: Bisphenol A Estrogen mimic Found in many common products Laboratory findings Effects on human health Should it be banned? 17-4 How Can We Evaluate and Deal with Chemical Hazards? Concept 17-4A Scientists use live laboratory animals, non-animal tests, case reports of poisonings, and epidemiological studies to estimate the toxicity of chemicals, but these methods have limitations. Concept 17-4B Many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention to reduce our exposure to potentially harmful candidates. Toxicology Toxicity: Measure of how harmful a chemical is Water-soluble toxins, oil of fat soluble toxins Dosage: The amount of substance a person has taken Persistence: The ability of a substance to resist breaking down Bioaccumulation: The absorption and storage of toxins in organs and tissue Biomagnification: The increase of toxin levels as they go up the food chain Toxicology Synergistic interaction: Interaction of two or more factors or processes so that the combined effects is greater than the sum of their separate effects Response: The type & amount of damage from a
However, one must also realize in that high temperatures can cause thermal denaturation, change in the tertiary structure of an enzyme, and freezing may also damage an enzyme as well as heat. (Taggart) PH affects enzyme activity because if the solution is too acidic or too basic the catalase is inactive and no longer will function as an enzyme. Most living things produce enzymes. This enzyme is produced to decompose hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas (Hewitson). Hydrogen peroxide is toxic to living organisms, which is why you put it on wounds to kill germs.
Landfill sites on many accounts are blamed for poison of the groundwater supply and other organisms such as local wildlife and even humans. Some landfill sites attempt to find better ways to dispose of their toxins and waste such as burning, however this causes air waste pollution and due to this is not the any better than to keep it in its toxic underground coffins. Although there has been several solutions proposed to find a better alternative for waste disposal none have passed on a scale big enough to make too much of a difference. Though there is a light at the end of the tunnel. St. Lucie County has as of 2006 proposed use of "lighting-like" plasma arcs to vaporize the waste at temperature levels that are hotter than the sun.