Chapters 1-3 Key Terms (the Earth and Its Peoples Ap 4th Version) Essay

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Chapter One civilization An ambiguous term often used to denote more complex societies but sometimes used by anthropologists to describe any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits. culture Socially transmitted patterns of action and expression. Material culture refers to physical objects such as dwellings, clothing, tools, and crafts. Culture also includes art, beliefs, knowledge, and technology. history The study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices. Stone Age The historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances. It was followed in some places by the Bronze Age and more generally by the Iron Age. Paleolithic The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period. Neolithic The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period. foragers People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects. Agricultural Revolutions The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution. Holocene The geological era since end of the Great Ice Age about 11,000 years ago. megalith Structures and complexes of very large stones structed for ceremonial and religious purposes in Neolithic times. Babylon The largest and most influential city in Mesopotamia, It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E.and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. Sumerians The people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E.They were responsible for the creation of many

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