Chapter 2 Essay

739 WordsOct 14, 20133 Pages
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter includes the Foreign and Local Literature and Foreign and Local Studies. This chapter primarily focuses on different researches and other literatures that focused on several aspects that will help with the progression of this study. Foreign Studies Chad W. Post (2010) creating a translation machine has long been seen as one of the toughest challenges in artificial intelligence. For decades, computer scientists tried using a rule-based approach-teaching the computer the linguistic rules of two languages and giving it the necessary dictionaries. But in the mid-1990s, researchers began favoring a so-called statistical approach. They found that if they fed the computer thousands or millions of passages and their human-generated translations, it could learn to make accurate guesses about how to translate a new text. Fast forward a couple weeks, and welcome renowned translator David Bellos for the smackdown. Bellos’s op-ed piece in yesterday’s Times is the perfect example of how to write something like this. The piece is brilliant from opening to finishing flourish. In a very balanced, smart way, he starts by describing the history of (and potential need for) machine translation, and building from there to explain the paradigm shift from thinking as language as a “code” made up of a lexicon and a grammar, to the statistical approach, which functions because people tend to say the same things over and over again in all languages. All that’s fine and good—machine translation can help interpret when people are calling for help, when they’re making basic statements. But the implication beneath the original article (and especially that damned chart) is that machine translation can translate anything from menus to distress calls to works of high-literature. And it’s that last category which caused everyone

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