All Russian governments in this period faced strong opposition to their regime with the period as a whole punctuated by riots, disturbances and revolutions. Political change was expected in Russia during this period, particularly during the Tsarist regime where the growth of the revolutionary intelligentsia, ironically an effect of the Great Reforms, led many to question the need for a Tsar or a royal family at all. The first main success of political opposition is widely considered to be the assassination of Alexander II at the hands of the People’s Will in 1881. Although they assassinated their Tsar, it is very likely this did not actually lead to their desired outcome, it being greater political freedom/democracy. Many historians have said Alexander II was considering the formation of a parliament in Russia.
The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government. An alternative socialist establishment existed alongside, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets. The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist
He fought against Spanish rule in 1811 with the inspiration of George Washington. After eight long years, he brought an army together and crushed the Spanish army of Colombia. The occupation of his forces led to the Peninsular War, which gave the Spanish Creole an opportunity to gain independence from their mother country. This resulted in a series of revolutions that took place all over Spanish America. This revolution has a great impact and long-lasting implications on the countries in Latin America.
During the 110-year period from 1855 to 1964, there are a several turning points in the development of Russian government in terms of its ideology, structure and practice of which the most significant events are the abolition of serfdom in 1861 which emancipation was introduced, the Bolshevik’s takeover in October 1917, in which it crushed all possibility that liberal democracy might emerge into Russian to the world’s first Communist state and Stalin’s acquisition of power in 1928. The main ideological turning points of the development of Russian government were the abdication of Russia’s last Tsar, Nicholas II, in February 1917, and the Bolshevik’s takeover in Oct 1917, of which the first indicates the end of autocracy while the later indicates the establishment of Communism. Between both, the Bolshevik’s takeover seems to be a more important turning point. In theory, both events are important turning points in the history of the development of the Russian Government, but the February Revolution is not as important is the October Revolution, because the fall of autocracy led to a change to liberal democratic government, which did not last long due to small impact to the country, however the rise of Communism from the fall of liberal democratic government had a massive impact on the development of the government, as the later events, such as the establishment of the One-Day Parliament, Stalin’s acquisition of power occurred based on different views towards the ideology of Communism. The fall of autocratic system is significant in the change of ideology of the Russian government, as it had marked the end of Tsarism, but the October Revolution in 1917 is a more important turning point of the development of the government, as based on Communism, the Russian government had changes in its structure and practices later on.
Although Ivan calmed down in 1564 in protest, he was urged back to power and began a rule of terror never before seen in Russian history. He divided the country into two clean-cut spheres, the oprichnina was encompassing his personal domain, and the other ,the zemshchina, representing the rest. Ivan broke the power of the Muscovite boyars, exiling thousands of them to Siberia, and created a new militia. These hand-picked oprichniki, as he named them, were devoted to his orders and were encouraged to rape, loot, burn, kill and torture in the Tsar's name. They spread terror throughout Russia, culminating in the atrocious massacre of Novgorod in 1569, when as many as 60,000 citizens were tortured to death for supposedly plotting to side with
In January 1905, there was a revolutionary tide in Russia. This was mainly caused by the defeat of the Russo-Japanese War in September and the Bloody Sunday Incident in January. In the country, workers, peasants and merchants were holding demonstrations in order to express their discontent to the Tsarist government. Although Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto to pacify the discontent of people temporarily, he still had to face some problems after the 1905 Revolution. To regain the support from people, he needed to carry out the reforms in the October Manifesto.
Alexander Nevsky began the process of making the princes more powerful, and it was finished by Ivan III, who overthrew the Mongols and became Russia's first tzar Tsar: Russian title for monarch to refer Russian Ruler, Ivan III (r. 1462-1505) Teutonic Knights: Order of German Knights founded in Jerusalem who shifted their area of operation in 1211 to eastern Europe to convert non-Christians Places The Ukraine: a country in Eastern Europe Empires / Kingdoms Il-khan Empire: a “secondary” or “peripheral” khan based in Persia. The il-khans’ khanate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was based at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan. It
In “The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America,” written by Colin G. Colloway indicates that the Treaty of Paris of 1763 was the cause of American Revolutionary War. In this document, American territory changed hands in any treaty ever before. Settlers and Frontiers as long with Indians and Europeans all endured to adapt to new situations, boundaries, government and restrictions. It focuses on the sociological involvement of the war, and how it affected the different populations, both directly and indirectly. Also the document presents the triumphs and tragedies of the epic struggle on a continent placing them in a larger context in France and Great Britain global conflict.
By December 1917 central Russia and Siberia were under the control of Lenin’s government. The Brest-Litovsk peace agreement between Germany and Communist Russia galvanized significant portions of Russia's population to violently oppose the Bolshevik government. The White armies evolved out of this opposition and became the principal threat to the Bolshevik regime.
How far was the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 a threat to Henry VIII? The Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 was the largest rebellion of the Tudor Period. Rebels rose across the North of England, rebelling against change to their traditional way of life and worship. By 10th October, Robert Aske, a Yorkshire lawyer had become chief captain of an army of thirty thousand. The rebels made their headquarters in York before moving down to Pontefract on 21st October where Lord Darcy handed over Pontefract Castle; the most important fortress in the North.