Chapter 1 Psych Outline

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AP Psychology Madison Miller Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science – Pages 19-51 I. Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias A. Objective 1: Describe Hindsight bias, and explain how it can make research findings seem like mere common sense. 1. Hindsight bias was also known as the I-knew-it-all-along-phenomenon. Hindsight bias can be described as the view of seeing a particular event as being more predictable than they really are. 2. Research findings are affected by hindsight bias because when an outcome of a study is revealed it makes it seem like obvious common sense. II. Overconfidence A. Objective 2: Describe how overconfidence contaminates our everyday judgments. 1. Overconfidence contaminates our everyday judgments because our bias to seek information that confirms them and also we tend to overestimate our intuition. 2. Science confines error by taking us beyond the limits of our intuition and common sense with its procedures for gathering and sifting evidence. III. The Scientific Attitude A. Objective 3: Explain how the scientific attitude encourages critical thinking. 1. A scientific attitude encourages critical thinking due to the fact that it helps us recognize reality from illusion. 2. Scientific attitude brings everyday life critical thinking, which examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses outcomes. IV. The Scientific Method A. Objective 4: Describe how psychological theories guide scientific research. 1. Psychological theories guide scientific research by organizing observations and implying predicative hypotheses. 2. Researchers are able to test their hypotheses, validate and refine the theory, and sometimes, suggest practical applications after constructing precise operational definitions of their procedures. V. The Case Study A. Objective 5: Identify
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